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Évolution passée et contemporaine des chênes

Abstract : The present review takes stock of recently acquired knowledge on the evolution of European white oaks, from their origin and the diversification of the genus Quercus up to their contemporary evolution, notably in link with the evolution of climate. We recall the way these advances were made possible thanks to the improvement of the theoretical and methodological methods for studying genomes and the improvement of the sciences of evolution. For example, paleontological data coupled with population genetics methods made it possible to better date the emergence of European white oaks and understand their evolutionary history. European white oaks progressively differentiated from one another from a genetic point of view; but the end of the last glacial period brought them into contact, and a massive exchange of genes ensued. This new pathway contributed to homogenise the genomes of these species, except in a few precise zones of their genomes that explain current ecological preferences and other observable differences across species. These genetic exchanges also led to the transfer of adaptations among species; e.g. for example, sessile oak grew adapted to altitude. Finally, at a contemporary time scale, our analyses reveal that genetic and demographic changes occurred within two generations in sessile oak and pedunculate oak. To conclude, the review suggests possible applications of these results to the management and conservation of oak groves.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 23, 2021 - 11:19:35 AM
Last modification on : Monday, September 12, 2022 - 11:31:23 AM
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Antoine Kremer, Christophe Plomion, Thibault Leroy, Hermine Alexandre, Laura Truffaut, et al.. Évolution passée et contemporaine des chênes. Revue forestière française, AgroParisTech, 2020, 72 (4), pp.297-318. ⟨10.20870/revforfr.2020.5331⟩. ⟨hal-03206333⟩



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