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Dynamique spontanée post-tempête de la végétation forestière en contexte de changement climatique

Abstract : In a context where the disturbances could be more severe and/or more frequent, the choice of silvicultural management to be implemented following disturbances comes up against the lack of knowledge of the spontaneous dynamics of regeneration obtained in the context of climate change. From permanent plots installed in France following the storms of 1999, the objective of this study is to analyse the medium-term vegetation dynamics observed within forest gaps, to identify its main determinants and assess the interaction between disturbances and adaptation of plant communities to climate change. The natural tree regeneration, obtained in the post-storm gaps, seems to be sufficient in terms of density and species diversity. Most sites have in average more than 2000 stems/ha and 4.4 species present in the stratum greater than 2 m. The few concerning situations have been identified from the young stages of regeneration and have common characteristics: they are old coniferous stands on acidic soil where competing vegetation has been able to develop, inducing regeneration blocking. In these contexts, a silvicultural intervention would have been desirable to promote regeneration. A specific study of the natural regeneration of three major European hardwood species was carried out: oak, hornbeam and beech. We have highlighted a decline in the abundance of oak over time, in favour of the two most competitive species of beech and hornbeam. Oak is still present on 22% of the sites 19 years after the canopy was opened despite its low density. It also shows growth equivalent or even superior to that of hornbeam and beech, suggesting different development strategies between the three species. Nevertheless, in view of the observed dynamics of the oak, without intervention to promote its regeneration, its future seems uncertain in the coming decades. Finally, our study revealed a greater thermophilisation of the plant communities present in forests that have had an open canopy compared to those in undisturbed forests. By stimulating thermophilization, disturbance thus plays a major ecological role in the adaptation of plant communities to climate change. The importance of large-scale disturbances should therefore not be underestimated, especially in a future climate context where they are likely to intensify.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 25, 2021 - 2:25:22 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03134126, version 2

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Lucie Dietz. Dynamique spontanée post-tempête de la végétation forestière en contexte de changement climatique. Sylviculture, foresterie. AgroParisTech, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020AGPT0004⟩. ⟨tel-03134126v2⟩

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