Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142), and Patent Blue V (E131) by erythrocytes

Abstract : The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falcip-arum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P. falciparum including chloroquine-resistant isolates. Herein we have studied the antimalarial activities of dyes with different scaffold and we report that the triar-ylmethane dye (TRAM) Brilliant green inhibits the growth of asexual stages (IC 50 2 mM) and has exflagellation-blocking activity (IC 50 800 nM) against P. falciparum reference strains (3D7, 7G8) and chloroquine-resistant clinical isolate (Q206). In a second step we have investigated the antiplasmodial activities of two polysulfonated triarylmethane food dyes. Green S (E142) is weakly active against P. falciparum asexual stage (IC 50 x 17 mM) whereas Patent Blue V (E131) is inactive in both antimalarial assays. By applying liquid chromatography techniques for the culture supernatant analysis after cell washings and lysis, we report the detection of Brilliant green in erythrocytes, the selective uptake of Green S (E142) by infected erythrocytes, whereas Patent Blue V (E131) could not be detected within non-infected and 3D7-infected erythrocytes. Overall, our results suggest that two polysulfonated food dyes might display different affinity with transporters or channels on infected RBC membrane.
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International journal for parasitology. Drugs and drug resistance, 2017, 7 (3), pp.314 - 320. 〈10.1016/j.ijpddr.2017.07.002〉
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Louis-Jérôme Leba, Jean Popovici, Yannick Estevez, Stéphane Pelleau, Eric Legrand, et al.. Antiplasmodial activities of dyes against Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages: Contrasted uptakes of triarylmethanes Brilliant green, Green S (E142), and Patent Blue V (E131) by erythrocytes. International journal for parasitology. Drugs and drug resistance, 2017, 7 (3), pp.314 - 320. 〈10.1016/j.ijpddr.2017.07.002〉. 〈pasteur-01614675〉

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