B. T. Lahn and D. C. Page, Four evolutionary strata on the human X chromosome, Science, vol.286, p.10542153, 1999.

D. Bachtrog, Adaptation shapes patterns of genome evolution on sexual and asexual chromosomes in Drosophila, Nat Genet, vol.34, pp.215-219, 2003.

H. Skaletsky, T. Kuroda-kawaguchi, P. J. Minx, H. S. Cordum, L. Hillier et al., The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes, Nature, vol.423, p.12815422, 2003.

B. Vicoso and B. Charlesworth, Evolution on the X chromosome: unusual patterns and processes, Nat Rev Genet, vol.7, p.16847464, 2006.

Y. Soh, J. Alfö-ldi, T. Pyntikova, L. G. Brown, T. Graves et al., Sequencing the mouse Y chromosome reveals convergent gene acquisition and amplification on both sex chromosomes, Cell, vol.159, p.25417157, 2014.

C. A. Smith, K. N. Roeszler, T. Ohnesorg, D. M. Cummins, P. G. Farlie et al., The avian Z-linked gene DMRT1 is required for male sex determination in the chicken, Nature, vol.461, p.19710650, 2009.

L. Smeds, V. Warmuth, P. Bolivar, S. Uebbing, R. Burri et al., Evolutionary analysis of the femalespecific avian W chromosome, Nature Communications, vol.6, p.7330, 2015.

T. Ezaz, S. D. Sarre, D. O'meally, J. Graves, and A. Georges, Sex chromosome evolution in lizards: independent origins and rapid transitions, Cytogenet Genome Res, vol.127, p.20332599, 2009.

T. Gamble and D. Zarkower, Identification of sex-specific molecular markers using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, Molecular Ecology Resources, p.24506574, 2014.

S. Yoshimoto, E. Okada, H. Umemoto, K. Tamura, Y. Uno et al., A W-linked DMdomain gene, DM-W, participates in primary ovary development in Xenopus laevis, PNAS, vol.105, p.18268317, 2008.

I. Miura, H. Ohtani, and M. Ogata, Independent degeneration of W and Y sex chromosomes in frog Rana rugosa, Chromosome Res, vol.20, p.22143254, 2012.

M. Schartl, Sex determination by multiple sex chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis, PNAS, vol.112, p.26283399, 2015.

N. Rodrigues, T. Studer, C. Dufresnes, W. Ma, P. Veltsos et al., Dmrt1 polymorphism and sex-chromosome differentiation in Rana temporaria, Mol Ecol, p.28675502, 2017.

K. Kikuchi and S. Hamaguchi, Novel sex-determining genes in fish and sex chromosome evolution: Novel Sex-Determining Genes in Fish, Developmental Dynamics, vol.242, p.23335327, 2013.

C. Heule, W. Salzburger, and A. Bohne, Genetics of Sexual Development: An Evolutionary Playground for Fish, Genetics, vol.196, p.24653206, 2014.

A. Herpin and M. Schartl, Plasticity of gene-regulatory networks controlling sex determination: of masters, slaves, usual suspects, newcomers, and usurpators, EMBO reports, vol.16, p.26358957, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01222882

Q. Pan, J. Anderson, S. Bertho, A. Herpin, C. Wilson et al., Vertebrate sex-determining genes play musical chairs, C R Biol, vol.339, p.27291506, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01332464

J. E. Mank and J. C. Avise, Evolutionary diversity and turn-over of sex determination in teleost fishes, Sex Dev, vol.3, p.19684451, 2009.

Y. Yamamoto, Y. Zhang, M. Sarida, R. S. Hattori, and C. A. Strüssmann, Coexistence of Genotypic and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis, PLoS ONE, vol.9, p.25036903, 2014.

Y. Takehana, K. Naruse, S. Hamaguchi, and M. Sakaizumi, Evolution of ZZ/ZW and XX/XY sex-determination systems in the closely related medaka species, Oryzias hubbsi and O. dancena. Chromosoma, vol.116, p.17882464, 2007.

Y. Takehana, D. Demiyah, K. Naruse, S. Hamaguchi, and M. Sakaizumi, Evolution of different Y chromosomes in two medaka species, Oryzias dancena and O. latipes. Genetics, vol.175, p.17194774, 2007.

Y. Takehana, S. Hamaguchi, and M. Sakaizumi, Different origins of ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in closely related medaka fishes, Oryzias javanicus and O. hubbsi, Chromosome Res, vol.16, p.18607761, 2008.

K. Tanaka, Y. Takehana, K. Naruse, S. Hamaguchi, and M. Sakaizumi, Evidence for Different Origins of Sex Chromosomes in Closely Related Oryzias Fishes: Substitution of the Master Sex-Determining Gene, Genetics, vol.177, p.17947439, 2007.

T. Nagai, Y. Takehana, S. Hamaguchi, and M. Sakaizumi, Identification of the sex-determining locus in the Thai medaka, Oryzias minutillus, Cytogenet Genome Res, vol.121, p.18544937, 2008.

T. Myosho, Y. Takehana, S. Hamaguchi, and M. Sakaizumi, Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in Celebensis Group Medaka Fishes. G3 (Bethesda), vol.5, p.26497145, 2015.

J. Volff and M. Schartl, Sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in the medaka, Oryzias latipes, and the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. CGR, vol.99, p.12900561, 2002.

Q. Pan, Y. Guiguen, and A. Herpin, Evolution of sex determining genes in Fish. Encyclopedia of Reproduction
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01595118

I. Nanda, M. Kondo, U. Hornung, S. Asakawa, C. Winkler et al., A duplicated copy of DMRT1 in the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. PNAS, vol.99, p.12193652, 2002.

M. Matsuda, Y. Nagahama, A. Shinomiya, T. Sato, C. Matsuda et al., DMY is a Y-specific DM-domain gene required for male development in the medaka fish, Nature, vol.417, p.12037570, 2002.

M. Kondo, U. Hornung, I. Nanda, S. Imai, T. Sasaki et al., Genomic organization of the sexdetermining and adjacent regions of the sex chromosomes of medaka, Genome Res, vol.16, p.16751340, 2006.

M. Kondo, I. Nanda, M. Schmid, and M. Schartl, Sex Determination and Sex Chromosome Evolution: Insights from Medaka. SXD, vol.3, p.19684454, 2009.

S. Chen, G. Zhang, C. Shao, Q. Huang, G. Liu et al., Whole-genome sequence of a flatfish provides insights into ZW sex chromosome evolution and adaptation to a benthic lifestyle, Nature Genetics, vol.46, p.24487278, 2014.

A. Yano, R. Guyomard, B. Nicol, E. Jouanno, E. Quillet et al., An Immune-Related Gene Evolved into the Master Sex-Determining Gene in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Current Biology, vol.22, p.22727696, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01000319

A. Yano, B. Nicol, E. Jouanno, E. Quillet, A. Fostier et al., The sexually dimorphic on the Ychromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids, Evol Appl, vol.6, p.23745140, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01000680

A. Forsman, P. Tibblin, H. Berggren, O. Nordahl, P. Koch-schmidt et al., Pike Esox lucius as an emerging model organism for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology: a review, J Fish Biol, vol.87, p.26077107, 2015.

A. Raat, Synopsis of Biological Data on the Northern Pike: Esox Lucius Linnaeus, 1758. Food & Agriculture Org, 1988.

E. B. Rondeau, D. R. Minkley, J. S. Leong, A. M. Messmer, J. R. Jantzen et al., The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei, PLoS ONE, vol.9, p.25069045, 2014.

J. Pasquier, C. Cabau, T. Nguyen, E. Jouanno, D. Severac et al., Gene evolution and gene expression after whole genome duplication in fish: the PhyloFish database, BMC Genomics, vol.17, p.27189481, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01487023

M. Luczynski, K. Dabrowski, D. Kucharczyk, J. Glogowski, M. Luczynski et al., ] induced by heat shock-preliminary data, Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii, vol.1, issue.2, 1997.

I. Nanda, U. Hornung, M. Kondo, M. Schmid, and M. Schartl, Common spontaneous sex-reversed XX males of the medaka Oryzias latipes, Genetics, vol.163, p.12586712, 2003.

R. S. Hattori, Y. Murai, M. Oura, S. Masuda, S. K. Majhi et al., A Y-linked anti-Mullerian hormone duplication takes over a critical role in sex determination, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.109, p.22323585, 2012.

M. Li, Y. Sun, J. Zhao, H. Shi, S. Zeng et al., A Tandem Duplicate of Anti-Mullerian Hormone with a Missense SNP on the Y Chromosome Is Essential for Male Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, PLOS Genetics, vol.11, p.26588702, 2015.

E. B. Rondeau, C. V. Laurie, S. C. Johnson, and B. F. Koop, A PCR assay detects a male-specific duplicated copy of Anti-Mü llerian hormone (amh) in the lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus), BMC Research Notes, vol.9, p.27103037, 2016.

D. K. Bej, K. Miyoshi, R. S. Hattori, C. A. Strüssmann, Y. Yamamoto et al., Truncated amh Gene Is Involved in Male Sex Determination in an Old World Silverside. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, p.28611256, 2017.

T. Kamiya, W. Kai, S. Tasumi, A. Oka, T. Matsunaga et al., A Trans-Species Missense SNP in Amhr2 Is Associated with Sex Determination in the Tiger Pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes (Fugu). Peichel CL, editor, PLoS Genetics, vol.8, p.22807687, 2012.

J. Graves and C. L. Peichel, Are homologies in vertebrate sex determination due to shared ancestry or to limited options?, Genome biology, vol.11, p.20441602, 2010.

C. Belville, H. Van-vlijmen, C. Ehrenfels, B. Pepinsky, A. R. Rezaie et al., Mutations of the antimullerian hormone gene in patients with persistent mullerian duct syndrome: biosynthesis, secretion, and processing of the abnormal proteins and analysis using a three-dimensional model, Mol Endocrinol, vol.18, p.14673134, 2004.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01930675

B. Knebelmann, L. Boussin, D. Guerrier, L. Legeai, A. Kahn et al., Anti-Mü llerian hormone Bruxelles: a nonsense mutation associated with the persistent Mü llerian duct syndrome, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.88, p.2023927, 1991.

F. Pfennig, A. Standke, and H. O. Gutzeit, The role of Amh signaling in teleost fish-Multiple functions not restricted to the gonads, General and Comparative Endocrinology, vol.223, p.26428616, 2015.

R. Overbeek, M. Fonstein, D. Souza, M. Pusch, G. D. Maltsev et al., The use of gene clusters to infer functional coupling, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, vol.96, p.10077608, 1999.

A. Herpin and M. Schartl, Molecular mechanisms of sex determination and evolution of the Y-chromosome: Insights from the medakafish (Oryzias latipes), Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol.306, p.19481684, 2009.

A. Herpin, I. Braasch, M. Kraeussling, C. Schmidt, E. C. Thoma et al., Transcriptional Rewiring of the Sex Determining dmrt1 Gene Duplicate by Transposable Elements, PLoS Genetics, vol.6, p.20169179, 2010.

B. Charlesworth and D. Charlesworth, The degeneration of Y chromosomes, Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, vol.355, p.11127901, 2000.

D. Charlesworth, B. Charlesworth, and G. Marais, Steps in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, Heredity (Edinb), vol.95, p.15931241, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00427860

M. Kasahara, K. Naruse, S. Sasaki, Y. Nakatani, W. Qu et al., The medaka draft genome and insights into vertebrate genome evolution, Nature, vol.447, p.17554307, 2007.

C. A. Wilson, S. K. High, B. M. Mccluskey, A. Amores, Y. Yan et al., Wild Sex in Zebrafish: Loss of the Natural Sex Determinant in Domesticated Strains, Genetics, vol.198, p.25233988, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01205119

H. M. Natri, T. Shikano, and J. Merilä, Progressive Recombination Suppression and Differentiation in Recently Evolved Neo-sex Chromosomes, Mol Biol Evol, vol.30, p.23436913, 2013.

D. Charlesworth, The Guppy Sex Chromosome System and the Sexually Antagonistic Polymorphism Hypothesis for Y Chromosome Recombination Suppression, Genes (Basel), vol.9, p.29783761, 2018.

W. J. Gammerdinger, M. A. Conte, E. A. Acquah, R. B. Roberts, and T. D. Kocher, Structure and decay of a proto-Y region in Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, BMC Genomics, vol.15, p.25404257, 2014.

W. J. Gammerdinger, M. A. Conte, B. A. Sandkam, A. Ziegelbecker, S. Koblmüller et al., Novel Sex Chromosomes in 3 Cichlid Fishes from Lake Tanganyika, J Hered, vol.109, p.29444291, 2018.

J. J. Faber-hammond, R. B. Phillips, and K. H. Brown, Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes, Genome Biol Evol, vol.7, pp.1972-1987, 2015.

K. P. Lubieniecki, S. Lin, E. I. Cabana, J. Li, Y. Lai et al., Genomic Instability of the Sex-Determining Locus in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, vol.5, p.26401030, 2015.

B. Vicoso, V. B. Kaiser, and D. Bachtrog, Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, vol.110, p.23547111, 2013.

J. J. Bull, Evolution of sex determining mechanisms. Evolution of sex determining mechanisms, 1983.

W. R. Rice, Evolution of the Y Sex Chromosome in AnimalsY chromosomes evolve through the degeneration of autosomes, BioScience, vol.46, pp.331-343, 1996.

R. Bergero and D. Charlesworth, The evolution of restricted recombination in sex chromosomes, Trends Ecol Evol (Amst), vol.24, p.19100654, 2009.

A. E. Wright, R. Dean, F. Zimmer, and J. E. Mank, How to make a sex chromosome, Nature Communications, vol.7, p.27373494, 2016.

J. Wang, J. Na, Q. Yu, A. R. Gschwend, J. Han et al., Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution, PNAS, vol.109, p.22869747, 2012.

R. Schultheiß, H. M. Viitaniemi, and E. H. Leder, Spatial Dynamics of Evolving Dosage Compensation in a Young Sex Chromosome System, Genome Biol Evol, vol.7, p.25618140, 2015.

M. A. White, J. Kitano, and C. L. Peichel, Purifying Selection Maintains Dosage-Sensitive Genes during Degeneration of the Threespine Stickleback Y Chromosome, Mol Biol Evol, vol.32, p.25818858, 2015.

R. Bergero, A. Forrest, E. Kamau, and D. Charlesworth, Evolutionary strata on the X chromosomes of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia: evidence from new sex-linked genes, Genetics, vol.175, p.17287532, 2007.

K. Nam and H. Ellegren, The chicken (Gallus gallus) Z chromosome contains at least three nonlinear evolutionary strata, Genetics, vol.180, p.18791248, 2008.

B. Vicoso, J. J. Emerson, Y. Zektser, S. Mahajan, and D. Bachtrog, Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation, PLOS Biology, vol.11, p.24015111, 2013.

Q. Zhou, J. Zhang, D. Bachtrog, N. An, Q. Huang et al., Complex evolutionary trajectories of sex chromosomes across bird taxa, Science, vol.346, p.25504727, 2014.

M. C. Keinath, N. Timoshevskaya, V. A. Timoshevskiy, S. R. Voss, and J. J. Smith, Miniscule differences between sex chromosomes in the giant genome of a salamander, Sci Rep, vol.8, p.30552368, 2018.

V. Solovyev, P. Kosarev, I. Seledsov, and D. Vorobyev, Automatic annotation of eukaryotic genes, pseudogenes and promoters, Genome Biol, vol.7, p.16925832, 2006.

F. Sievers, A. Wilm, D. Dineen, T. J. Gibson, K. Karplus et al., Fast, scalable generation of high-quality protein multiple sequence alignments using Clustal Omega, Mol Syst Biol, vol.7, p.21988835, 2011.

H. Mcwilliam, W. Li, M. Uludag, S. Squizzato, Y. M. Park et al., Analysis Tool Web Services from the EMBL-EBI, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.41, p.23671338, 2013.

W. Li, A. Cowley, M. Uludag, T. Gur, H. Mcwilliam et al., The EMBL-EBI bioinformatics web and programmatic tools framework, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.43, p.25845596, 2015.

M. Brudno, C. B. Do, G. M. Cooper, M. F. Kim, E. Davydov et al., efficient tools for large-scale multiple alignment of genomic DNA, Genome Res, vol.13, p.12654723, 2003.

P. Rice, I. Longden, and A. Bleasby, EMBOSS: the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite, Trends Genet, vol.16, p.10827456, 2000.

S. Guindon, J. Dufayard, V. Lefort, M. Anisimova, W. Hordijk et al., New algorithms and methods to estimate maximum-likelihood phylogenies: assessing the performance of PhyML 3.0, Syst Biol, vol.59, p.20525638, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/lirmm-00511784

V. Lefort, J. Longueville, and O. Gascuel, SMS: Smart Model Selection in PhyML, Mol Biol Evol, vol.34, p.28472384, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/lirmm-01794206

A. Louis, M. Muffato, R. Crollius, and H. , Genomicus: five genome browsers for comparative genomics in eukaryota, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.41, p.23193262, 2013.

A. Louis, N. Nguyen, M. Muffato, R. Crollius, and H. , Genomicus update 2015: KaryoView and MatrixView provide a genome-wide perspective to multispecies comparative genomics, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.43, p.25378326, 2015.

K. Gharbi, A. Gautier, R. G. Danzmann, S. Gharbi, T. Sakamoto et al., A linkage map for brown trout (Salmo trutta): chromosome homeologies and comparative genome organization with other salmonid fish, Genetics, vol.172, p.16452148, 2006.

O. J. Marshall, PerlPrimer: cross-platform, graphical primer design for standard, bisulphite and real-time PCR, Bioinformatics, vol.20, p.15073005, 2004.

T. Asahida, T. Kobayashi, K. Saitoh, and I. Nakayama, Tissue Preservation and Total DNA Extraction form Fish Stored at Ambient Temperature Using Buffers Containing High Concentration of Urea. Fisheries science, vol.62, pp.727-730, 1996.

. Barker, Phenol-Chloroform Isoamyl Alcohol (PCI) DNA Extraction, 1998.

J. Vandesompele, D. Preter, K. Pattyn, F. Poppe, B. Van-roy et al., Accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data by geometric averaging of multiple internal control genes

, Genome Biology, vol.3, p.12184808, 2002.

D. Reyon, C. Khayter, M. R. Regan, J. K. Joung, and J. D. Sander, Engineering designer transcription activatorlike effector nucleases (TALENs) by REAL or REAL-Fast assembly, Curr Protoc Mol Biol, p.23026907, 2012.

L. Cade, D. Reyon, W. Y. Hwang, S. Q. Tsai, S. Patel et al., Highly efficient generation of heritable zebrafish gene mutations using homo-and heterodimeric TALENs, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.40, p.22684503, 2012.

P. Huang, A. Xiao, M. Zhou, Z. Zhu, S. Lin et al., Heritable gene targeting in zebrafish using customized TALENs, Nat Biotechnol, vol.29, p.21822242, 2011.

T. Szabó, Ovulation induction in northern pike Esox lucius L. using different GnRH analogues, Ovaprim, Dagin and carp pituitary, Aquaculture Research, vol.34, pp.479-486, 2003.

. R-core-team, R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing

A. Amores, J. Catchen, A. Ferrara, Q. Fontenot, and J. H. Postlethwait, Genome Evolution and Meiotic Maps by Massively Parallel DNA Sequencing: Spotted Gar, an Outgroup for the Teleost Genome Duplication, Genetics, vol.188, p.21828280, 2011.

J. M. Catchen, A. Amores, P. Hohenlohe, W. Cresko, and J. H. Postlethwait, Stacks: Building and Genotyping Loci De Novo From Short-Read Sequences. G3 (Bethesda), vol.1, p.22384329, 2011.

H. Li and R. Durbin, Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows-Wheeler transform, Bioinformatics, vol.25, p.19451168, 2009.

C. C. Chang, C. C. Chow, L. C. Tellier, S. Vattikuti, S. M. Purcell et al., Second-generation PLINK: rising to the challenge of larger and richer datasets, Gigascience, vol.4, 2015.

R. Feron and . Radsex, , 2019.

S. De-givry, M. Bouchez, P. Chabrier, D. Milan, and T. Schiex, CARHTA GENE: multipopulation integrated genetic and radiation hybrid mapping, Bioinformatics, vol.21, p.15598829, 2005.

S. Koren, B. P. Walenz, K. Berlin, J. R. Miller, N. H. Bergman et al., Canu: scalable and accurate long-read assembly via adaptive k-mer weighting and repeat separation, Genome Res, vol.27, p.28298431, 2017.

D. C. Hardie and P. D. Hebert, Genome-size evolution in fishes, Can J Fish Aquat Sci, vol.61, pp.1636-1646, 2004.

H. Li and I. Birol, Minimap2: pairwise alignment for nucleotide sequences, Bioinformatics, vol.34, p.29750242, 2018.

B. J. Walker, T. Abeel, T. Shea, M. Priest, A. Abouelliel et al., An Integrated Tool for Comprehensive Microbial Variant Detection and Genome Assembly Improvement, PLOS ONE, vol.9, p.25409509, 2014.

D. Earl, K. Bradnam, . St, J. John, A. Darling et al., Assemblathon 1: A competitive assessment of de novo short read assembly methods, Genome Res, vol.21, p.21926179, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00637571

F. A. Simão, R. M. Waterhouse, P. Ioannidis, E. V. Kriventseva, and E. M. Zdobnov, BUSCO: assessing genome assembly and annotation completeness with single-copy orthologs, Bioinformatics, vol.31, pp.3210-3212, 2015.

H. Li, B. Handsaker, A. Wysoker, T. Fennell, J. Ruan et al., The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools, Bioinformatics, vol.25, p.19505943, 2009.

R. Kofler, R. V. Pandey, and C. Schlötterer, PoPoolation2: identifying differentiation between populations using sequencing of pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq), Bioinformatics, vol.27, p.22025480, 2011.

S. F. Altschul, T. L. Madden, A. A. Schä-ffer, J. Zhang, Z. Zhang et al., Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res, vol.25, p.9254694, 1997.

A. Smit, R. Hubley, and P. Green,