Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

The C-terminal domain of Salmonid Alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) is essential and sufficient to block RIG-I pathway induction and interferon-mediated antiviral response.

Abstract : Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an atypical alphavirus, which has a considerable impact on salmon and trout farms. Unlike other alphaviruses such as the chikungunya virus, SAV is transmitted without an arthropod vector, and does not cause cell shut-off during infection. The mechanisms by which SAV escapes the host immune system remain unknown. By studying the role of SAV proteins on the RIG-I signaling cascade, the first line of defense of the immune system during infection, we demonstrated that non-structural protein 2 (nsP2) effectively blocks the induction of type I interferon (IFN). This inhibition, independent of the protease activity carried by nsP2, occurs downstream of IRF3 which is the transcription factor allowing the activation of the IFN promoter and its expression. The inhibitory effect of nsP2 on the RIG-I pathway depends on the localization of nsP2 in the host cell nucleus which is linked to two nuclear localization sequences (NLS) located in its C-terminal part. The C-terminal domain of nsP2 by itself is sufficient and necessary to block IFN induction. Mutation of the NLS of nsP2 is deleterious to the virus. Finally, nsP2 does not interact with IRF3, indicating that its action is possible through a targeted interaction within discrete areas of chromatin, as suggested by its punctate distribution observed in the nucleus. These results therefore demonstrate a major role for nsP2 in the control by SAV of the host cell's innate immune response. Importance The global consumption of fish continues to rise and the future demand cannot be met by capture fisheries alone due to limited stocks of wild fish. Aquaculture is currently the world's fastest growing food production sector with an annual growth rate of 6-8 %. Recurrent outbreaks of SAV result in significant economic losses with serious environmental consequences on wild stocks. While the clinical and pathological signs of SAV infection are fairly well known, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly described. In the present study, we focus on the non-structural protein nsP2 and characterize a specific domain containing nuclear localization sequences that are critical for the inhibition of the host innate immune response mediated by the RIG-I pathway.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadata

https://hal-agroparistech.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03418820
Contributor : Raphaël Jami Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Monday, November 8, 2021 - 10:23:37 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 10, 2021 - 4:05:43 AM

Identifiers

Citation

Raphaël Jami, Emilie Mérour, Julie Bernard, Annie Lamoureux, Jean Millet, et al.. The C-terminal domain of Salmonid Alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) is essential and sufficient to block RIG-I pathway induction and interferon-mediated antiviral response.. Journal of Virology, American Society for Microbiology, In press, ⟨10.1128/JVI.01155-21⟩. ⟨hal-03418820⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

33