K. Abegg, C. Corteville, N. G. Docherty, C. Boza, T. A. Lutz et al., Effect of bariatric surgery combined with medical therapy versus intensive medical therapy or calorie restriction and weight loss on glycemic control in Zucker diabetic fatty rats, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, vol.308, pp.321-329, 2015.

O. A. Adegoke, M. I. Mcburney, and V. E. Baracos, Jejunal mucosal protein synthesis: validation of luminal flooding dose method and effect of luminal osmolarity, Am J Physiol, vol.276, 1999.

N. Alamuddin, M. L. Vetter, R. S. Ahima, L. Hesson, S. Ritter et al., Changes in fasting and prandial gut and adiposity hormones following vertical sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass: an 18-month prospective study, Obes Surg, vol.27, pp.1563-1572, 2017.

L. Angrisani, A. Santonicola, P. Iovino, G. Formisano, H. Buchwald et al., Bariatric Surgery Worldwide, Obes Surg, vol.25, pp.1822-1832, 2013.

K. Arapis, J. B. Cavin, L. Gillard, F. Cluzeaud, P. Lettéron et al., Remodeling of the residual gastric mucosa after roux-en-y gastric bypass or vertical sleeve gastrectomy in diet-induced obese rats, PLoS One, vol.10, 2015.

A. Verger, E. O. Bounaix, C. Dao, M. C. Oppert, J. M. Bouillot et al., Nutritional and protein deficiencies in the short term following both gastric bypass and gastric banding, PLoS One, vol.11, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01278580

R. Barazzoni, M. Zanetti, C. Nagliati, M. R. Cattin, C. Ferreira et al., Gastric bypass does not normalize obesity-related changes in ghrelin profile and leads to higher acylated ghrelin fraction, Obesity (Silver Spring), vol.21, pp.718-722, 2013.

R. D. Bloomberg, A. Fleishman, J. E. Nalle, D. M. Herron, and S. Kini, Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery: what have we learned?, Obes Surg, vol.15, pp.145-154, 2005.

K. N. Bojsen-møller, S. H. Jacobsen, C. Dirksen, N. B. Jørgensen, S. Reitelseder et al., Madsbad S. Accelerated protein digestion and amino acid absorption after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.102, pp.600-607, 2015.

C. Boutry, H. Fouillet, F. Mariotti, F. Blachier, D. Tomé et al., Rapeseed and milk protein exhibit a similar overall nutritional value but marked difference in postprandial regional nitrogen utilization in rats, Nutr Metab (Lond), vol.8, p.52, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01186874

S. A. Brethauer, J. P. Hammel, and P. R. Schauer, Systematic review of sleeve gastrectomy as staging and primary bariatric procedure, Surg Obes Relat Dis, vol.5, pp.469-475, 2009.

M. Bueter, C. Löwenstein, T. Olbers, M. Wang, N. L. Cluny et al., Gastric bypass increases energy expenditure in rats, Gastroenterology, vol.138, pp.1845-1853, 2010.

D. G. Carey, G. J. Pliego, R. L. Raymond, and K. B. Skau, Body composition and metabolic changes following bariatric surgery: effects on fat mass, lean mass and basal metabolic rate, Obes Surg, vol.16, pp.469-477, 2006.

J. B. Cavin, A. Couvelard, R. Lebtahi, R. Ducroc, K. Arapis et al., Differences in alimentary glucose absorption and intestinal disposal of blood glucose after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass vs sleeve gastrectomy, Gastroenterology, vol.150, pp.454-464, 2016.

J. B. Cavin, E. Voitellier, F. Cluzeaud, N. Kapel, J. P. Marmuse et al., Malabsorption and intestinal adaptation after one anastomosis gastric bypass compared with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats, Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, vol.311, pp.492-500, 2016.

E. Cazzo, M. A. Gestic, M. P. Utrini, F. Chaim, B. Geloneze et al., GLP-2: a poorly understood mediator enrolled in various bariatric/metabolic surgery-related pathophysiologic mechanisms, Arq Bras Cir Dig, vol.29, pp.272-275, 2016.

E. Cazzo, M. A. Gestic, M. P. Utrini, J. C. Pareja, E. A. Chaim et al., Correlation between pre and postoperative levels of GLP-1/GLP-2 and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a prospective study, Arq Bras Cir Dig, vol.29, pp.257-259, 2016.

A. R. Chang, Y. Chen, C. Still, G. C. Wood, H. L. Kirchner et al., Bariatric surgery is associated with improvement in kidney outcomes, Kidney Int, vol.90, pp.164-171, 2016.

L. Chevalier, C. Bos, C. Gryson, C. Luengo, S. Walrand et al., High-protein diets differentially modulate protein content and protein synthesis in visceral and peripheral tissues in rats, Nutrition, vol.25, pp.932-939, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01547463

J. L. Colquitt, K. Pickett, E. Loveman, and G. K. Frampton, Surgery for weight loss in adults, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue.8, p.3641, 2014.

D. E. Cummings, D. S. Weigle, R. S. Frayo, P. A. Breen, M. K. Ma et al., Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery, N Engl J Med, vol.346, pp.1623-1630, 2002.

A. Currie, A. Chetwood, and A. R. Ahmed, Bariatric surgery and renal function, Obes Surg, vol.21, pp.528-539, 2011.

A. J. Darragh and S. M. Hodgkinson, Quantifying the digestibility of dietary protein, J Nutr, vol.130, pp.1850-1856, 2000.

A. M. Davila, F. Blachier, M. Gotteland, M. Andriamihaja, P. H. Benetti et al., Intestinal luminal nitrogen metabolism: role of the gut microbiota and consequences for the host, Pharmacol Res, vol.68, pp.95-107, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01001597

H. Duboc, C. C. Nguyen, J. B. Cavin, L. Ribeiro-parenti, A. C. Jarry et al., Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass and sleeve gastrectomy induces specific shifts of the gut microbiota without altering the metabolism of bile acids in the intestinal lumen, Int J Obes, vol.43, pp.428-431, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-02016619

J. Faintuch, M. Matsuda, M. E. Cruz, M. M. Silva, M. P. Teivelis et al., Severe protein-calorie malnutrition after bariatric procedures, Obes Surg, vol.14, pp.175-181, 2004.

C. Fromentin, D. Azzout-marniche, D. Tomé, P. Even, C. Luengo et al., The postprandial use of dietary amino acids as an energy substrate is delayed after the deamination process in rats adapted for 2 weeks to a high protein diet, Amino Acids, vol.40, pp.1461-1472, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01003272

D. Georgiadou, T. N. Sergentanis, A. Nixon, T. Diamantis, C. Tsigris et al., Efficacy and safety of laparoscopic mini gastric bypass. A systematic review, Surg Obes Relat Dis, vol.10, pp.984-991, 2014.

B. E. Grayson, A. P. Hakala-finch, M. Kekulawala, H. Laub, A. E. Egan et al., Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in male rats, Stress, vol.17, pp.484-493, 2014.

Z. Grover and L. C. Ee, Protein energy malnutrition, Pediatr Clin North Am, vol.56, pp.1055-1068, 2009.

C. F. Hansen, M. Bueter, N. Theis, T. Lutz, S. Paulsen et al., Hypertrophy dependent doubling of L-cells in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operated rats, PLoS One, vol.8, p.65696, 2013.

Z. Hao, R. L. Townsend, M. B. Mumphrey, L. M. Patterson, J. Ye et al., Vagal innervation of intestine contributes to weight loss after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass surgery in rats, Obes Surg, vol.24, pp.2145-2151, 2014.

G. S. Jammu and R. Sharma, A 7-year clinical audit of 1107 cases comparing sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-En-Y gastric bypass, and mini-gastric bypass, to determine an effective and safe bariatric and metabolic procedure, Obes Surg, vol.26, pp.926-932, 2016.

G. L. Jensen, J. Mirtallo, C. Compher, R. Dhaliwal, A. Forbes et al., International Consensus Guideline Committee. Adult starvation and disease-related malnutrition: a proposal for etiologybased diagnosis in the clinical practice setting from the International Consensus Guideline Committee, Clin Nutr, vol.29, pp.151-153, 2010.

P. Kalinowski, R. Paluszkiewicz, T. Wróblewski, P. Remiszewski, M. Grodzicki et al., Ghrelin, leptin, and glycemic control after sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypassresults of a randomized clinical trial, Surg Obes Relat Dis, vol.13, pp.181-188, 2017.

, Removal of blood from laboratory mammals and birds. First report of the BVA/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement, Lab Anim, vol.27, pp.1-22, 1993.

M. Lacroix, J. Léonil, C. Bos, G. Henry, G. Airinei et al., Heat markers and quality indexes of industrially heattreated [ 15 N] milk protein measured in rats, J Agric Food Chem, vol.54, pp.1508-1517, 2006.

T. A. Lutz and M. Bueter, Physiological mechanisms behind Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, Dig Surg, vol.31, pp.13-24, 2014.

V. Moizé, A. Andreu, L. Rodríguez, L. Flores, A. Ibarzabal et al., Protein intake and lean tissue mass retention following bariatric surgery, Clin Nutr, vol.32, pp.550-555, 2013.

J. D. Mosinski, M. R. Pagadala, A. Mulya, H. Huang, O. Dan et al., Gastric bypass surgery is protective from high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress, Acta Physiol (Oxf), vol.217, pp.141-151, 2016.

M. B. Mumphrey, Z. Hao, R. L. Townsend, L. M. Patterson, and H. R. Berthoud, Sleeve gastrectomy does not cause hypertrophy and reprogramming of intestinal glucose metabolism in rats, Obes Surg, vol.25, pp.1468-1473, 2015.

E. Nadreau, E. D. Baraboi, P. Samson, A. Blouin, F. S. Hould et al., Effects of the biliopancreatic diversion on energy balance in the rat, Int J Obes, vol.30, pp.419-429, 2006.

K. J. Neff, A. H. Frankel, F. W. Tam, D. M. Sadlier, C. Godson et al., The effect of bariatric surgery on renal function and disease: a focus on outcomes and inflammation, Nephrol Dial Transplant, vol.28, pp.73-82, 2013.

M. Oberli, V. Douard, M. Beaumont, D. Jaoui, F. Devime et al., Lipo-protein emulsion structure in the diet affects protein digestion kinetics, intestinal mucosa parameters and microbiota composition, Mol Nutr Food Res, vol.62, p.1700570, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01619023

M. Oberli, A. Lan, N. Khodorova, V. Santé-lhoutellier, F. Walker et al., Compared with raw bovine meat, boiling but not grilling, barbecuing, or roasting decreases protein digestibility without any major consequences for intestinal mucosa in rats, although the daily ingestion of bovine meat induces histologic modifications in the colon, J Nutr, vol.146, pp.1506-1513, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01455213

M. Oberli, A. Marsset-baglieri, G. Airinei, V. Santé-lhoutellier, N. Khodorova et al., High true ileal digestibility but not postprandial utilization of nitrogen from bovine meat protein in humans is moderately decreased by high-temperature, long-duration cooking, J Nutr, vol.145, pp.2221-2228, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01455216

P. E. O'brien, T. Mcphail, T. B. Chaston, and J. B. Dixon, Systematic review of medium-term weight loss after bariatric operations, Obes Surg, vol.16, pp.1032-1040, 2006.

E. A. Odstrcil, J. G. Martinez, S. Ana, C. A. Xue, B. Schneider et al., The contribu-G600 BARIATRIC SURGERY AND PROTEIN BIOAVAILABILITY

A. Physiol and ?. Doi, journal/ajpgi at INRAE Institut National de Recherche pour l'Agriculture, l'Alimentation et l'Environnement ( on January 16, 2020. tion of malabsorption to the reduction in net energy absorption after long-limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.92, pp.704-713, 2010.

N. Poupin, C. Bos, F. Mariotti, J. Huneau, D. Tomé et al., The nature of the dietary protein impacts the tissue-to-diet 15N discrimination factors in laboratory rats, PLoS One, vol.6, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01186796

A. Pucci and R. L. Batterham, Mechanisms underlying the weight loss effects of RYGB and SG: similar, yet different, J Endocrinol Invest, vol.42, pp.117-128, 2019.

R. Rajendram, J. S. Marway, D. Mantle, T. J. Peters, and V. R. Preedy, Skeletal muscle and jejunal protein synthesis in normal and ethanol-treated rats: the effect of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, L--nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine in vivo, Metabolism, vol.52, pp.397-401, 2003.

V. Rebours, P. Garteiser, L. Ribeiro-parenti, J. B. Cavin, S. Doblas et al., Obesity-induced pancreatopathy in rats is reversible after bariatric surgery, Sci Rep, vol.8, p.16295, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01984172

S. M. Rutherfurd, A. C. Fanning, B. J. Miller, and P. J. Moughan, Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores and digestible indispensable amino acid scores differentially describe protein quality in growing male rats, J Nutr, vol.145, pp.372-379, 2015.

N. Saeidi, L. Meoli, E. Nestoridi, N. K. Gupta, S. Kvas et al., Reprogramming of intestinal glucose metabolism and glycemic control in rats after gastric bypass, Science, vol.341, pp.406-410, 2013.

A. C. Shin, H. Zheng, R. L. Townsend, L. M. Patterson, G. M. Holmes et al., Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in highfat-fed obese rats, Obes Surg, vol.23, pp.531-540, 2013.

A. T. Stearns, A. Balakrishnan, and A. Tavakkolizadeh, Impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on rat intestinal glucose transport, Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, vol.297, pp.950-957, 2009.

E. Taqi, L. E. Wallace, E. De-heuvel, P. K. Chelikani, H. Zheng et al., The influence of nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions, and systemic trophic hormones on intestinal adaptation in a Roux-en-Y bypass model, J Pediatr Surg, vol.45, pp.987-995, 2010.

K. Vdoviaková, E. Petrovová, M. Maloveská, L. Kre?áková, J. Teleky et al., Surgical anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and its vasculature in the laboratory rat, Gastroenterol Res Pract, vol.2016, pp.1-11, 2016.

E. O. Verger, J. Aron-wisnewsky, M. C. Dao, B. D. Kayser, J. M. Oppert et al., Micronutrient and protein deficiencies after gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: a 1-year follow-up, Obes Surg, vol.26, pp.785-796, 2016.

Y. Wang, X. Chen, Y. Song, B. Caballero, and L. J. Cheskin, Association between obesity and kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Kidney Int, vol.73, pp.19-33, 2008.

K. Watanabe, M. Ohta, H. Takayama, K. Tada, Y. Shitomi et al., Effects of sleeve gastrectomy on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an obese rat model, Obes Surg, vol.28, pp.1532-1539, 2018.

C. K. Yao, J. G. Muir, and P. R. Gibson, Review article: insights into colonic protein fermentation, its modulation and potential health implications

, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol.43, pp.181-196, 2016.