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Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches

Safaa Wasof Jonathan Lenoir 1 Per Arild Aarrestad Inger Greve Alsos 2 W. Scott Armbruster Gunnar Austrheim Vegar Bakkestuen 2 H. John B. Birks Mari Bråthen Olivier Broennimann 3 Jorg Brunet 4 Hans Henrik Bruun Carl Johan Dahlberg Martin Diekmann Stefan Dullinger 5 Mats Dynesius 6 Rasmus Ejrnaes Jean-Claude Gégout 7 Bente Jessen Graae Arvid Grytnes Antoine Guisan 8 Kristoffer Hylander Ingibjorg S. Jonsdottir 9 Jutta Kapfer Kari Klanderud Miska Luoto Ann Milbau Mari Moora 10 Bettina Nygaard Arvid Odland Harald Pauli 5 Virve Ravolainen Stefanie Reinhardt Sylvi Marlen Sandvik Fride Høistad Schei James D. M. Speed Jens-Christian Svenning 11 Wilfried Thuiller 12 Liv Unn Tveraabak Vigdis Vandvik Liv Guri Velle Risto Virtanen 13 Pascal Vittoz 14 Wolfgang Willner 15 Thomas Wohlgemuth 16 Niklaus E. Zimmermann 17 Martin Zobel 18 Guillaume Decocq 19
Abstract : Aim Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been separated for thousands of years. Location European Alps and Fennoscandia. Methods Of the studied pool of 888 terrestrial vascular plant species occurring in both the Alps and Fennoscandia, we used two complementary approaches to test and quantify climatic-niche shifts for 31 species having strictly disjunct populations and 358 species having either a contiguous or a patchy distribution with distant populations. First, we used species distribution modelling to test for a region effect on each species' climatic niche. Second, we quantified niche overlap and shifts in niche width (i.e. ecological amplitude) and position (i.e. ecological optimum) within a bi-dimensional climatic space. Results Only one species (3%) of the 31 species with strictly disjunct populations and 58 species (16%) of the 358 species with distant populations showed a region effect on their climatic niche. Niche overlap was higher for species with strictly disjunct populations than for species with distant populations and highest for arctic-alpine species. Climatic niches were, on average, wider and located towards warmer and wetter conditions in the Alps. Main conclusion Climatic niches seem to be generally conserved between populations that are separated between the Alps and Fennoscandia and have probably been so for 10,000-15,000 years. Therefore, the basic assumption of species distribution models that a species' climatic niche is constant in space and time-at least on time scales 104 years or less-seems to be largely valid for arctic-alpine plants.
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Safaa Wasof, Jonathan Lenoir, Per Arild Aarrestad, Inger Greve Alsos, W. Scott Armbruster, et al.. Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches. Global Ecology and Biogeography, Wiley, 2015, 24 (12), pp.1401 - 1412. ⟨10.1111/geb.12375⟩. ⟨hal-01599162⟩



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