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Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches

Safaa Wasof 1 Jonathan Lenoir 1 Per Arild Aarrestad 2 Inger Greve Alsos 3 W. Scott Armbruster 4, 5 Gunnar Austrheim 6 Vegar Bakkestuen 3, 2 H. John B. Birks 7 Mari Bråthen 8 Olivier Broennimann 9 Jorg Brunet 10 Hans Henrik Bruun 11 Carl Johan Dahlberg 12 Martin Diekmann 13 Stefan Dullinger 14 Mats Dynesius 15 Rasmus Ejrnaes 16 Jean-Claude Gégout 17 Bente Jessen Graae 18 Arvid Grytnes 7 Antoine Guisan 19 Kristoffer Hylander 20 Ingibjorg S. Jonsdottir 21 Jutta Kapfer 22 Kari Klanderud 23 Miska Luoto 24 Ann Milbau 25 Mari Moora 26 Bettina Nygaard 16 Arvid Odland 27 Harald Pauli 14 Virve Ravolainen 28 Stefanie Reinhardt 27 Sylvi Marlen Sandvik 29 Fride Høistad Schei 22 James D. M. Speed 6 Jens-Christian Svenning 16 Wilfried Thuiller 30 Liv Unn Tveraabak 31 Vigdis Vandvik 7 Liv Guri Velle 32 Risto Virtanen 33 Pascal Vittoz 34 Wolfgang Willner 35 Thomas Wohlgemuth 36 Niklaus E. Zimmermann 37 Martin Zobel 38 Guillaume Decocq 39
34 Département d'écologie et évolution
Département d'écologie et évolution
Abstract : Aim Previous research on how climatic niches vary across species ranges has focused on a limited number of species, mostly invasive, and has not, to date, been very conclusive. Here we assess the degree of niche conservatism between distant populations of native alpine plant species that have been separated for thousands of years. Location European Alps and Fennoscandia. Methods Of the studied pool of 888 terrestrial vascular plant species occurring in both the Alps and Fennoscandia, we used two complementary approaches to test and quantify climatic-niche shifts for 31 species having strictly disjunct populations and 358 species having either a contiguous or a patchy distribution with distant populations. First, we used species distribution modelling to test for a region effect on each species' climatic niche. Second, we quantified niche overlap and shifts in niche width (i.e. ecological amplitude) and position (i.e. ecological optimum) within a bi-dimensional climatic space. Results Only one species (3%) of the 31 species with strictly disjunct populations and 58 species (16%) of the 358 species with distant populations showed a region effect on their climatic niche. Niche overlap was higher for species with strictly disjunct populations than for species with distant populations and highest for arctic-alpine species. Climatic niches were, on average, wider and located towards warmer and wetter conditions in the Alps. Main conclusion Climatic niches seem to be generally conserved between populations that are separated between the Alps and Fennoscandia and have probably been so for 10,000-15,000 years. Therefore, the basic assumption of species distribution models that a species' climatic niche is constant in space and time-at least on time scales 104 years or less-seems to be largely valid for arctic-alpine plants.
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Safaa Wasof, Jonathan Lenoir, Per Arild Aarrestad, Inger Greve Alsos, W. Scott Armbruster, et al.. Disjunct populations of European vascular plant species keep the same climatic niches. Global Ecology and Biogeography, Wiley, 2015, 24 (12), pp.1401 - 1412. ⟨10.1111/geb.12375⟩. ⟨hal-01599162⟩



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