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Multimodal interactions

Abstract : Introduction A central sensory characteristic of food is its flavor, which, most of the time, confers to a given food product its identity and typicality, and thus contribute to its liking (Prescott, 2015). Flavor has been defined as a sensory percept induced by food or beverage tasting. This holistic perception is constructed through the functional integration of information transmitted by the chemical senses: olfaction, gustation, and oral and nasal somatosensory inputs (Thomas-Danguin, 2009). Flavor may be influenced by other nonchemical sensory inputs such as texture, sound, or color (Spence, 2013). The functional integration of information transmitted by anatomically distinct senses relies on a multimodal processing, which is fundamental for our interaction with and behavioral adaptation to our environment. In the case of food flavor, the multimodal integration of chemosensory cues induces crossmodal perceptual interactions in which the perception of a tastant may affect the perceived intensity of an odorant, and vice versa (Delwiche, 2004). Nevertheless, although crossmodal interactions can result from perceptual processes, other factors may also contribute to the overall construction of the food flavor percept. In this chapter, we propose a review of multimodal interactions in the context of food flavor construction and modulation. In the first part, we focus on interactions within the chemical senses. We report evidences for the integration of olfactory and gustatory information at sub- and suprathreshold levels, and then review the mechanisms underpinning aroma–taste interactions, as well as the neurophysiological bases of perceptual flavor integration. Afterward, we provide more details on the impact of olfactory, gustatory and trigeminal interactions on food flavor perception. In the second part, we present interactions between aroma, taste, and texture while summarizing the possible mechanisms, and we consider the influence of texture on aroma and taste and the reverse. Along this chapter, several terms are used with a specific meaning that is not necessarily consensual, depending on the scientific area. The terms taste, odor, and aroma refer to the perceptions induced by chemicals which are respectively tastants or odorants, perceived through the ortho- or retronasal route, respectively. We also use the term of flavoring agent for a mixture of odorants formulated to produce a specific aroma. Finally, we use the term texture to define the perception of textural properties (eg, hardness, thickness, etc.), while the term structure refers to the physical organization of the food matrix.
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Thierry Thomas-Danguin, Charlotte Sinding, Carole Tournier, Anne Saint-Eve. Multimodal interactions. P. Etievant; Elisabeth Guichard; Christian Salles; Andree Voilley. Flavor. From Food to Behaviors, Wellbeing and Health, 299 (299), Elsevier Ltd, pp.121-141, 2016, Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, 978-0-08-100295-7. ⟨10.1016/B978-0-08-100295-7.00006-2⟩. ⟨hal-01583753⟩



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