J. D. Allan, « Components of Diversity, Oecologia 18, vol.4, pp.359-367, 1975.

R. Levins, Evolution in Changing Environments : Some Theoretical Explorations, 1968.

R. K. Colwell and D. J. Futuyma, « On the measurement of niche breadth and overlap, Ecology 52, vol.4, pp.567-576, 1971.

E. C. Pielou, « Niche width and niche overlap : a method for measuring them, Ecology 53, vol.4, pp.687-692, 1972.

R. P. Schulte, , 2005.

, A new family of Fisher-curves estimates Fisher's alpha more accurately, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.232, pp.305-313

. Gleason, « On the Relation Between Species and Area, vol.3, p.213, 1922.

. Arrhenius, Species and Area, vol.8, p.234, 1921.

. Williamson, « The species-area relationship does not have an asymptote ! », cf, p.234, 2001.

C. B. Williams, Patterns in the balance of nature, 1964.

E. F. Connor and E. D. Mccoy, The Statistics and Biology of the Species-Area Relationship, vol.113, pp.791-833, 1979.

. Preston, « The Canonical Distribution of Commonness and Rarity : Part I », cf, vol.9, p.234, 1962.

C. , « On random placement and species-area relations, vol.5, p.224, 1981.

B. D. Coleman, « Randomness, area, and species richness, Ecology 63, vol.4, pp.1121-1133, 1982.
DOI : 10.2307/1937249

M. A. Zacharias and J. C. Roff, « Use of focal species in marine conservation and management : a review and critique, Aquatic Conservation : Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol.11, pp.59-76, 2001.

R. T. Paine, « A note on trophic complexity and community stability, American naturalist 103, vol.929, pp.91-93, 1969.

J. Roberge and P. Angelstam, « Usefulness of the Umbrella Species Concept as a Conservation Tool, Conservation Biology 18.1, pp.76-85, 2004.

C. G. Jones, « Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers, Oikos, 69.3, pp.373-386, 1994.
DOI : 10.2307/3545850

A. Chiarucci, « Old and new challenges in using species diversity for assessing biodiversity, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B : Biological Sciences, vol.366, pp.2426-2437, 1576.

. Balmford, Mea, 2003.

F. E. Clements, Plant succession ; an analysis of the development of vegetation, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1916.

H. M. Pereira, « Essential biodiversity variables, Science, vol.339, pp.277-278, 2013.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1229931

URL : http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/sbstta/sbstta-17/information/sbstta-17-inf-07-en.pdf

R. J. Scholes and R. Biggs, , 2005.

«. , Nature 434, vol.7029, pp.45-49

. Balmford, Mea, 2003.

S. T. Buckland, , 2011.

, The geometric mean of relative abundance indices : a biodiversity measure with a difference, Ecosphere 2.9

J. Loh, « The Living Planet Index : using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B : Biological Sciences 360, pp.289-295, 1454.

J. Bibliographie-aczél, Z. Et, and . Daróczy, On measures of information and their characterizations, p.204, 1975.

M. A. Adelman, « Comment on the "H" Concentration Measure as a Numbers-Equivalent, The Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.51, p.58, 1969.

P. M. Agapow, O. R. Binindal-emonds, K. A. Crandall, J. L. Gittleman, G. M. Mace et al., The impact of species concept on biodiversity studies, vol.2, pp.161-179, 2004.

R. V. Alatalo, « Problems in the Measurement of Evenness in Ecology, Oikos 37, vol.2, p.81, 1981.

J. D. Allan, « Components of Diversity, Oecologia 18, vol.4, p.205, 1975.

B. Allen, M. Kon, and Y. Bar-yam, « A New Phylogenetic Diversity Measure Generalizing the Shannon Index and Its Application to Phyllostomid Bats, American Naturalist, vol.174, p.119, 2009.

D. Alonso, A. J. Et, and . Mckane, « Sampling Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity, Ecology Letters, issue.10, pp.901-910, 2004.

M. J. Anderson, T. O. Crist, J. M. Chase, M. Vellend, B. D. Inouye et al.,

L. S. Cornell, K. F. Comita, S. P. Davies, N. J. Harrison, J. C. Kraft et al., « Navigating the multiple meanings of ? diversity : a roadmap for the practicing ecologist, Ecology Letters, vol.14, pp.145-148, 2011.

M. J. Anderson, K. E. Ellingsen, and B. H. Mcardle, « Multivariate dispersion as a measure of beta diversity. » In : Ecology letters 9, vol.6, p.158, 2006.

O. Arrhenius, « Species and Area, Journal of Ecology, vol.9, p.234, 1921.

J. Ashbridge, I. B. Et, and . Goudie, « Coverage-adjusted estimators for mark-recapture in heterogeneous populations, Communications in Statistics-Simulation and Computation, vol.29, p.46, 2000.

G. Bacaro, M. Gioria, and C. Ricotta, « Testing for Differences in Beta Diversity From Plot-To-Plot Dissimilarities, Ecological Research, vol.27, pp.285-292, 2012.

, « Beta diversity reconsidered, Ecological Research, vol.28, pp.537-540, 2013.

G. Bacaro, C. Et, and . Ricotta, « A spatially explicit measure of beta diversity, Community Ecology 8.1, p.245, 2007.

G. Bacaro, C. Ricotta, M. Marignani, D. Torri, and A. Chiarucci, « Using Shannon's recursivity to summarize forest structural diversity, Forests Trees and Livelihoods 23, vol.3, p.201, 2014.

J. C. Baez, T. Fritz, and T. Leinster, « A characterization of entropy in terms of information loss, Entropy 13, vol.11, p.204, 2011.

A. Balmford, M. J. Green, and M. G. Murray, , 1996.

, Using higher-taxon richness as a surrogate for species richness : I. Regional tests, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B : Biological Sciences, vol.263, p.40

A. Balmford, R. E. Green, and M. Jenkins, « Measuring the changing state of nature, Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18, vol.7, p.251, 2003.

A. Balmford, A. H. Jayasuriya, and M. J. Green, « Using higher-taxon richness as a surrogate for species richness : II. Local applications, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B : Biological Sciences, vol.263, p.40, 1996.

C. Baraloto, C. E. Paine, S. Patiño, D. Bonal, B. Hérault et al., « Functional trait variation and sampling strategies in species rich plant communities, Functional Ecology, vol.24, p.93, 2010.

A. Barberousse, S. Et, and . Samadi, « La taxonomie et les collections d'histoire naturelle à l'heure de la sixième extinction, La biodiversité en question. Enjeux philosophiques, éthiques et scientifiques. Sous la dir. d'E, vol.6, pp.155-182, 2014.
DOI : 10.3917/edmat.delor.2014.01.0155

A. Baselga, « Multiplicative partition of true diversity yields independent alpha and beta components ; additive partition does not, Ecology 91, vol.7, p.151, 2010.

, « Partitioning the turnover and nestedness components of beta diversity, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.19, pp.134-143, 2010.

, « The relationship between species replacement, dissimilarity derived from nestedness, and nestedness, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.21, p.159, 2012.

G. P. Basharin, « On a Statistical Estimate for the Entropy of a Sequence of Independent Random Variables, Theory of Probability and its Applications 4.3, p.45, 1959.

B. Basset, Y. , L. Cizek, P. Cuénoud, R. K. Didham et al., Arthropod Diversity in a Tropical Forest, vol.338, p.22, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00817285

C. Beck, « Generalised Information and Entropy Measures in Physics, Contemporary Physics 50, vol.4, pp.495-510, 2009.

J. Beck, J. D. Holloway, and W. Schwanghart, , 2013.

, Undersampling and the measurement of beta diversity, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.4, p.181

J. Beck, W. Et, and . Schwanghart, « Comparing measures of species diversity from incomplete inventories : an update, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.1, issue.1, p.31, 2010.

J. Béguinot, « An Algebraic Derivation of Chao's Estimator of the Number of Species in a Community Highlights the Condition Allowing Chao to Deliver Centered Estimates, International Scholarly Research Notices, vol.847328, p.24, 2014.

, « Extrapolation of the Species Accumulation Curve for Incomplete Species Samplings : A New Nonparametric Approach to Estimate the Degree of Sample Completeness and Decide when to Stop Sampling, Annual Research & Review in Biology, vol.8, issue.5, p.32, 2015.

, « When Reasonably Stop Sampling ? How to Estimate the Gain in Newly Recorded Species According to the Degree of Supplementary Sampling Effort, Annual Research & Review in Biology, vol.228, p.226, 2015.

, « Basic Theoretical Arguments Advocating Jackknife2 as Usually being the Most Appropriate Nonparametric Estimator of Total Species Richness, Annual Research & Review in Biology, vol.10, p.28, 2016.

R. Bellman, K. L. Cooke, and J. A. Lockett, Algorithms, Graphs and Computers, p.197, 1970.

F. Bello, S. De, C. N. Lavergne, J. Meynard, W. Lep? et al., « The partitioning of diversity : showing Theseus a way out of the labyrinth, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.21, p.179, 2010.

W. H. Berger and F. L. Parker, « Diversity of planktonic foraminifera in deep-sea sediments, Science 168, vol.3937, p.62, 1970.

P. Blandin, Enjeux philosophiques, éthiques et scientifiques. Sous la dir. d'E. Casetta et, La diversité du vivant avant (et après) la biodiversité : repères historiques et épistémologiques ». In : La biodiversité en question, vol.1, pp.31-68, 2014.

B. Blonder, C. Lamanna, C. Violle, and B. J. Enquist, « The n-dimensional hypervolume, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.23, p.100, 2014.

J. A. Bonachela, H. Hinrichsen, and M. A. Muñoz, , 2008.

, Entropy estimates of small data sets, Journal of Physics A : Mathematical and Theoretical, vol.41, p.47, 202001.

B. G. Bordenave and J. De-granville, « Les mesures de la biodiversité : un outil de conservation en forêt guyanaise, JATBA, p.218, 1998.

B. G. Bordenave, J. De-granville, and K. Steyn, , 2011.

, Suriname, « Quantitative botanical diversity descriptors to set conservation priorities in Bakhuis Mountains rainforest, vol.167, pp.94-130

L. Borland, A. R. Plastino, and C. Tsallis, « Information gain within nonextensive thermostatistics, Journal of Mathematical Physics, vol.39, p.173, 1998.

Z. Botta-dukát, « Rao's quadratic entropy as a measure of functional diversity based on multiple traits, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.16, p.113, 2005.

, « The generalized replication principle and the partitioning of functional diversity into independent alpha and beta components, Ecography 41.1, p.119, 2018.

F. Bourguignon, « Decomposable Income Inequality Measures, Econometrica 47, vol.4, p.173, 1979.

G. E. Box and D. R. Cox, « An analysis of transformations, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society : Series B (Statistical Methodology), vol.26, p.59, 1964.

C. J. Braak and . Ter, « Principal components biplots and alpha and beta diversity, Ecology 64, vol.3, p.163, 1983.

, « Canonical Correspondence Analysis : A New Eigenvector Technique for Multivariate Direct Gradient Analysis, Ecology 67, vol.5, p.166, 1986.

J. Braun-blanquet, Pflanzensoziologie : Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde, p.233, 1928.

J. R. Bray and J. T. Curtis, « An Ordination of the Upland Forest Communities of Southern Wisconsin, Ecological Monographs, vol.27, p.158, 1957.

L. Brillouin, Science and information theory, Chap, vol.351, p.44, 1962.

K. M. Broms, M. B. Hooten, and R. M. Fitzpatrick, , 2014.

, « Accounting for Imperfect Detection in Hill Numbers for Biodiversity Studies, vol.6, p.71

U. Brose, N. D. Martinez, and R. J. Williams, « Estimating species richness : Sensitivity to sample coverage and insensitivity to spatial patterns, Ecology, vol.84, p.33, 2003.

M. Brülhart, R. Et, and . Traeger, « An Account of Geographic Concentration Patterns in Europe, Regional Science and Urban Economics, vol.35, p.72, 2005.

S. T. Buckland, A. C. Studeny, A. E. Magurran, J. B. Illian, and S. E. Newson, « The geometric mean of relative abundance indices : a biodiversity measure with a difference, Ecosphere 2.9, p.251, 2011.

L. Bulla, « An index of evenness and its associated diversity measure, Oikos 70.1, p.80, 1994.

M. G. Bulmer, « On Fitting the Poisson Lognormal Distribution to Species-Abundance Data ». In : Biometrics 30, vol.1, p.45, 1974.

K. P. Burnham and W. S. Overton, « Estimation of the Size of a Closed Population when Capture Probabilities vary Among Animals, Biometrika 65, vol.3, p.26, 1978.

, « Robust Estimation of Population Size When Capture Probabilities Vary Among Animals, vol.26, p.22, 1979.

S. Buuren, J. P. Van, C. G. Brand, D. B. Groothuisoudshoorn, and . Rubin, « Fully conditional specification in multivariate imputation, Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation 76, vol.12, p.94, 2006.

S. Buuren, K. Van, and . Groothuis-oudshoorn, « mice : Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations in R », Journal of Statistical Software, vol.45, p.94, 2011.

M. W. Cadotte, T. J. Davies, J. Regetz, S. W. Kembel, E. Cleland et al., « Phylogenetic diversity metrics for ecological communities : integrating species richness, abundance and evolutionary history, Ecology Letters, vol.13, p.106, 2010.

F. Cailliez, « The analytical solution of the additive constant problem, Psychometrika, vol.48, p.92, 1983.

G. Caldarelli, A. Capocci, P. De-los-rios, and M. A. Muñoz, « Scale-free networks from varying vertex intrinsic fitness, Physical Review Letters, vol.89, p.40, 2002.

D. Campos, J. F. Et, and . Isaza, « A geometrical index for measuring species diversity, Ecological Indicators 9, vol.4, p.137, 2009.

L. Cao, M. Et, and . Grabchak, EntropyEstimation : Estimation of Entropy and Related Quantities, p.225, 2014.

B. J. Cardinale, J. E. Duffy, A. Gonzalez, D. U. Hooper, C. Perrings et al., Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity, vol.7401, p.4, 2012.

C. C. Cartozo, D. Garlaschelli, C. Ricotta, M. Barthélemy, and G. Caldarelli, « Quantifying the taxonomic diversity in real species communities, Journal of Physics A : Mathematical and Theoretical, vol.41, p.40, 2008.

E. Casetta, « Évaluer et conserver la biodiversité face au problème des espèces, La biodiversité en question. Enjeux philosophiques, éthiques et scientifiques. Sous la dir. d'E, vol.5, pp.139-154, 2014.

B. Castellani, R. Et, and . Rajaram, « Past the power law : Complex systems and the limiting law of restricted diversity, Complexity 21, vol.2, p.77, 2016.

J. Cavender-bares, K. H. Kozak, P. V. Fine, and S. W. Kembel, « The merging of community ecology and phylogenetic biology, Ecology Letters, vol.12, p.95, 2009.

G. Ceballos, P. R. Ehrlich, and R. Dirzo, « Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.252, p.4, 2017.

L. Ceriani, P. Et, and . Verme, The origins of the Gini index : extracts from Variabilità e Mutabilità, 1912.

C. Gini and ». In, Journal of Economic Inequality, vol.10, pp.421-443

S. Champely, D. Et, and . Chessel, « Measuring biological diversity using Euclidean metrics, Environmental and Ecological Statistics, vol.9, p.115, 2002.

A. Chao, « Nonparametric estimation of the number of classes in a population, Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, vol.11, p.22, 1984.

, « Estimating the population size for capturerecapture data with unequal catchability, Biometrics 43, vol.4, p.24, 1987.

, « Species richness estimation, Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences. Sous la, p.24, 2004.

A. Chao, R. L. Chazdon, R. K. Colwell, and T. Shen, « A new statistical approach for assessing similarity of species composition with incidence and abundance data, Ecology Letters, vol.8, issue.2, p.155, 2004.

A. Chao, C. Chiu, and T. C. Hsieh, « Proposing a resolution to debates on diversity partitioning, Ecology 93.9, vol.152, p.175, 2012.

A. Chao, C. Chiu, T. C. Hsieh, T. Davis, D. A. Nipperess et al., « Rarefaction and extrapolation of phylogenetic diversity, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.6, p.112, 2015.

A. Chao, C. Chiu, and L. Jost, « Phylogenetic diversity measures based on Hill numbers, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B : Biological Sciences 365.1558, vol.121, p.123, 2010.

, Phylogenetic Diversity, Functional Diversity and Related Similarity /Differentiation Measures Through Hill Numbers, « Unifying Species Diversity, vol.45, p.249, 2014.

A. Chao, R. K. Colwell, C. Chiu, and D. Townsend, « Seen once or more than once : applying GoodTuring theory to estimate species richness using only unique observations and a species list, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.8, p.25, 2017.

A. Chao, N. J. Gotelli, T. C. Hsieh, E. L. Sander, K. H. Ma et al., « Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers : A framework for sampling and estimation in species diversity studies, Ecological Monographs, vol.84, p.51, 2014.

B. Chao, A. , T. C. Hsieh, R. L. Chazdon, R. K. Colwell et al., « Unveiling the Species-Rank Abundance Distribution by Generalizing Good-Turing Sample Coverage Theory, Ecology 96, vol.5, p.69, 2015.

A. Chao, L. Et, and . Jost, « Coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation : standardizing samples by completeness rather than size, Ecology 93, vol.12, p.47, 2012.

, « Estimating diversity and entropy profiles via discovery rates of new species, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.6, p.69, 0193.

A. Chao, L. Jost, S. C. Chiang, Y. H. Jiang, and R. L. Chazdon, « A Two-Stage Probabilistic Approach to Multiple-Community Similarity Indices, Biometrics 64, vol.4, p.183, 2008.

A. Chao, . Et-s.-m, and . Lee, « Estimating the Number of Classes Via Sample Coverage, Journal of the American Statistical Association 87, vol.417, p.25, 1992.

A. Chao, S. Lee, and T. Chen, « A generalized Good's nonparametric coverage estimator, Chinese Journal of Mathematics, vol.16, p.15, 1988.

A. Chao, C. Et, and . Lin, « Nonparametric Lower Bounds for Species Richness and Shared Species Richness under Sampling without Replacement, Biometrics, vol.68, p.16, 2012.

A. Chao, K. H. Ma, T. C. Hsieh, and C. Chiu, SpadeR : Species Prediction and Diversity Estimation with R, vol.29, p.16, 2016.

A. Chao, T. Et, and . Shen, « Nonparametric estimation of Shannon's index of diversity when there are unseen species in sample, Environmental and Ecological Statistics 10, vol.4, p.67, 2003.

, Program SPADE : Species Prediction And Diversity Estimation. Program and user's guide, vol.26, p.16, 2010.

A. Chao, Y. Wang, and L. Jost, « Entropy and the species accumulation curve : a novel entropy estimator via discovery rates of new species, Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4, vol.11, p.171, 2013.

F. S. Chapin, E. S. Zavaleta, V. T. Eviner, R. L. Naylor, P. M. Vitousek et al., Consequences of changing biodiversity, vol.6783, p.4, 2000.

J. M. Chase, N. J. Kraft, K. G. Smith, M. Vellend, and B. D. Inouye, « Using null models to disentangle variation in community dissimilarity from variation in ?-diversity ». In : Ecosphere 2.2, art, p.167, 2011.

J. M. Chase and J. A. Myers, « Disentangling the importance of ecological niches from stochastic processes across scales, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B : Biological Sciences 366.1576, p.167, 2011.

J. Chave, G. Chust, and C. Thébaud, « The importance of phylogenetic structure in biodiversity studies, Scaling biodiversity. Sous la dir. de D. Storch, P. Marquet et J. Brown. Santa Fe : Institute Editions, vol.244, p.93, 2007.

J. Chave, E. G. Et, and . Leigh, « A Spatially Explicit Neutral Model of ?-Diversity in Tropical Forests, Theoretical Population Biology 62, vol.2, p.243, 2002.

A. Chiarucci, G. Bacaro, and S. M. Scheiner, « Old and new challenges in using species diversity for assessing biodiversity, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B : Biological Sciences 366.1576, p.251, 2011.

C. Chiu, A. Et, and . Chao, « Distance-based functional diversity measures and their decomposition : a framework based on hill numbers, PloS one 9, vol.7, p.131, 2014.

C. Chiu, L. Jost, and A. Chao, « Phylogenetic beta diversity, similarity, and differentiation measures based on Hill numbers, Ecological Monographs, vol.84, p.152, 2014.

C. Chiu, Y. Wang, B. A. Walther, and A. Chao, « An Improved Nonparametric Lower Bound of Species Richness via a Modified Good-Turing Frequency Formula, Biometrics 70, vol.3, p.25, 2014.

M. Chytrý, Z. Et, and . Otýpková, « Plot sizes used for phytosociological sampling of European vegetation, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.14, p.233, 2003.

K. R. Clarke and R. M. Warwick, « Quantifying structural redundancy in ecological communities, Oecologia 113, vol.2, p.161, 1998.

, « A further biodiversity index applicable to species lists : variation in taxonomic distinctness, Marine Ecology-Progress Series, vol.216, pp.265-278, 2001.

F. E. Clements, Plant succession ; an analysis of the development of vegetation, p.251, 1916.

H. K. Clench, « How to make regional lists of butterflies : some thoughts, Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, vol.33, p.36, 1979.

B. D. Coleman, « On random placement and speciesarea relations, Mathematical Biosciences, vol.54, p.224, 1981.

B. D. Coleman, M. A. Mares, M. R. Willig, and Y. Hsieh, « Randomness, area, and species richness, Ecology 63, vol.4, p.238, 1982.

R. K. Colwell, A. Chao, N. J. Gotelli, S. Lin, C. X. Mao et al., « Models and estimators linking individual-based and samplebased rarefaction, extrapolation and comparison of assemblages, Journal of Plant Ecology, vol.5, p.225, 2012.

R. K. Colwell and J. A. Coddington, « Estimating Terrestrial Biodiversity through Extrapolation, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B : Biological Sciences, vol.345, p.29, 1311.

R. K. Colwell and D. J. Futuyma, « On the measurement of niche breadth and overlap, Ecology 52, vol.4, p.205, 1971.

P. Conceição, P. Et, and . Ferreira, The Young Person's Guide to the Theil Index : Suggesting Intuitive Interpretations and Exploring Analytical Applications. Rapp. tech, vol.56, p.44, 2000.

R. Condit, R. A. Chisholm, and S. P. Hubbell, , 2012.

, « Thirty Years of Forest Census at Barro Colorado and the Importance of Immigration in Maintaining Diversity, PLoS ONE 7.11, p.12

R. Condit, S. P. Hubbell, J. V. Lafrankie, R. Sukumar, N. Manokaran et al., , 1996.

, Relationships for Tropical Trees : A Comparison of Three 50-ha Plots, « Species-Area and Species-Individual, vol.84, p.220

R. Condit, N. Pitman, E. G. Leigh, J. Chave, J. Terborgh et al., « Beta-diversity in tropical forest trees, Science 295, vol.5555, p.243, 2002.

J. H. Connell, « Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests and Coral Reefs, Science 199, vol.4335, p.42, 1978.

E. F. Connor and E. D. Mccoy, The Statistics and Biology of the Species-Area Relationship, vol.113, p.238, 1979.

R. M. Cormack, « Log-Linear Models for CaptureRecapture, Biometrics 45, vol.2, p.26, 1989.

J. H. Cornelissen, S. Lavorel, E. Garnier, S. Díaz, N. Buchmann et al., « A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide, Australian Journal of Botany, vol.51, p.93, 2003.

S. H. Cousins, « Species diversity measurement : Choosing the right index, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.6, pp.190-192, 1991.

P. Couteron, R. Et, and . Pélissier, « Additive apportioning of species diversity : towards more sophisticated models and analyses, Oikos 107.1, p.195, 2004.

F. Cowell, Handbook of Income Distribution. Sous la dir, p.72, 2000.

J. Cracraft, Species Concepts and Speciation Analysis, vol.1, pp.159-187, 1983.

N. A. Cressie, Statistics for spatial data, p.231, 1993.

N. Cressie, T. R. Et, and . Read, « Multinomial Goodnessof-Fit Tests, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society : Series B (Statistical Methodology), vol.46, p.73, 1984.

T. O. Crist, J. A. Veech, J. C. Gering, and K. S. Summerville, « Partitioning species diversity across landscapes and regions : A hierarchical analysis of alpha, beta, and gamma diversity, The American Naturalist, vol.162, p.181, 0191.

R. H. Crozier, « Preserving the Information Content of Species : Genetic Diversity , Phylogeny , and Conservation Worth Interaction with Reasons Justifying the Preservation, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol.28, p.93, 1997.

E. Cutrini, « Specialization and Concentration from a Twofold Geographical Perspective : Evidence from Europe, Regional Studies, vol.44, p.201, 2010.

J. Czekanowski, Zarys metod statystycznych w zastosowaniu do antropologii. Warsaw : Towarzystwo Naukowe Warszawskie, p.153, 1913.

H. Dalton, « The measurement of the inequality of incomes, The Economic Journal, vol.30, p.57, 1920.

Z. Daróczy, « Generalized information functions, Information and Control, vol.16, p.59, 1970.

J. K. Das, « Forest variability index : a vector quantifying forest stand diversity and forest compactness, Forest Policy and Economics, vol.6, issue.3-4, p.201, 2004.

G. Dauby, O. J. Et, and . Hardy, « Sampled-based estimation of diversity sensu stricto by transforming Hurlbert diversities into effective number of species, Ecography 35, vol.7, p.61, 2012.

H. T. Davis, The theory of econometrics, Bloomington, p.53, 1941.

P. A. Debenedictis, On the Correlations between Certain Diversity Indices, vol.954, p.85, 1973.

D. C. Delong, « Defining Biodiversity, Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol.24, p.3, 1996.

J. Delord, La biodiversité : imposture scientifique ou ruse épistémologique ? » In : La biodiversité en question. Enjeux philosophiques, éthiques et scientifiques. Sous la dir. d'E. Casetta et J. Delord. Paris : Editions Matériologiques. Chap. 3, p.3, 2014.
DOI : 10.3917/edmat.delor.2014.01.0083

J. Dengler, « Which function describes the speciesarea relationship best ? A review and empirical evaluation, Journal of Biogeography, vol.36, p.12, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.02038.x

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.02038.x/pdf

V. Devictor, D. Mouillot, C. Meynard, F. Jiguet, W. Thuiller et al., « Spatial mismatch and congruence between taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity : the need for integrative conservation strategies in a changing world. » In : Ecology letters 13, vol.8, p.21, 2010.

L. R. Dice, « Measures of the amount of ecologic association between species, Ecology 26, vol.3, p.153, 1945.

P. J. Diggle, Statistical analysis of spatial point patterns, p.230, 1983.

T. Dobzhansky, Genetics and the Origin of Species, 1937.

S. Drakare, J. J. Lennon, and H. Hillebrand, « The imprint of the geographical, evolutionary and ecological context on species-area relationships, Ecology Letters 9, vol.2, p.235, 2006.

D. Ellerman, « An Introduction To Logical Entropy and Its Relation To Shannon Entropy, International Journal of Semantic Computing, p.43, 2013.

A. M. Bibliographie-ellison, « Partitioning diversity, Ecology 91, vol.7, p.169, 2010.

S. Engen, On Species Frequency Models, vol.2, p.239, 1974.
DOI : 10.2307/2334353

, « Exponential and Logarithmic Species-Area Curves, The American Naturalist, vol.111, p.81, 1977.

M. I. Eren, A. Chao, W. Hwang, and R. K. Colwell, « Estimating the Richness of a Population When the Maximum Number of Classes Is Fixed : A Nonparametric Solution to an Archaeological Problem, Plos One 7.5, p.25, 2012.

A. Escalas, T. Bouvier, M. A. Mouchet, F. Leprieur, C. Bouvier et al., , 2013.

, « A unifying quantitative framework for exploring the multiple facets of microbial biodiversity across diverse scales, Environmental Microbiology 15, vol.10, p.113

W. W. Esty, « A Normal Limit Law for a Nonparametric Estimator of the Coverage of a Random Sample, The Annals of Statistics, vol.11, p.15, 1983.

D. K. Faddeev, « On the concept of entropy of a finite probabilistic scheme, Uspekhi Mat. Nauk 1.67, p.204, 1956.

D. P. Faith, « Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity, Biological Conservation 61.1, p.111, 1992.

, « Threatened species and the potential loss of phylogenetic diversity : conservation scenarios based on estimated extinction probabilities and phylogenetic risk analysis, Conservation Biology, vol.22, p.103, 2008.

L. Fattorini, M. Et, and . Marcheselli, « Inference on intrinsic diversity profiles of biological populations, Environmetrics 10, vol.5, pp.589-599, 1999.

J. Felsenstein, « Phylogenies and the Comparative Method, The American Naturalist, vol.25, p.95, 1985.

, Sinauer Associates (cf, p.94, 2004.

R. A. Fisher, A. S. Corbet, and C. B. Williams, , 1943.

, « The Relation Between the Number of Species and the Number of Individuals in a Random Sample of an Animal Population, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.12, pp.42-58

R. Gadagkar, « An undesirable property of Hill's diversity index N2, Oecologia, vol.80, p.62, 1989.

H. Gárcia-martín, N. Et, and . Goldenfeld, « On the origin and robustness of power-law species-area relationships in ecology, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, vol.27, p.239, 2006.

E. Garnier, J. Cortez, G. Billès, M. Navas, C. Roumet et al., « Plant functional markers capture ecosystem properties during secondary succession, Ecology 85, vol.9, p.117, 2004.

K. J. Gaston, « Global patterns in biodiversity, Nature 405, vol.6783, pp.220-227, 2000.

C. Gini, Variabilità e mutabilità. Bologna : C. Cuppini (cf, vol.80, p.43, 1912.

H. A. Gleason, « On the Relation Between Species and Area, Ecology 3, vol.2, p.213, 1922.

I. J. Good, « The Population Frequency of Species and the Estimation of Population Parameters, Biometrika 40.3/4, vol.15, p.43, 1953.

F. Gosselin, « Lorenz partial order : the best known logical framework to define evenness indices, Community Ecology 2.2, p.79, 2001.

N. J. Gotelli and R. K. Colwell, « Quantifying biodiversity : procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness, Ecology Letters 4, vol.4, p.224, 2001.

S. J. Gould, « An Allometric Interpretation of Species-Area Curves : The Meaning of the Coefficient, The American Naturalist, vol.114, p.235, 1979.

S. Gourlet-fleury, J. M. Guehl, and O. Laroussinie, , 2004.

, Lessons drawn from Paracou, a long-term experimental research site in French Guiana, p.11

J. C. Gower, « Some distance properties of latent root and vector methods used in multivariate analysis, Biometrika 53, vol.3, p.157, 1966.

, « A General Coefficient of Similarity and Some of Its Properties, Biometrics 27, vol.4, p.94, 1971.

J. C. Gower and P. Legendre, « Metric and Euclidean properties of dissimilarity coefficients, Journal of classification, vol.48, p.154, 1986.

M. Grabchak, E. Marcon, G. Lang, and Z. Zhang, , 2017.

, « The Generalized Simpson's Entropy is a Measure of Biodiversity, Plos One 12.3, e0173305, p.74

P. Grassberger, « Finite sample corrections to entropy and dimension estimates, Physics Letters A, vol.128, issue.88, p.67, 1988.

, « Entropy Estimates from Insufficient Samplings, p.48, 2003.

M. Greenwood, G. U. Et, and . Yule, « An Inquiry into the Nature of Frequency Distributions Representative of Multiple Happenings with Particular Reference to the Occurrence of Multiple Attacks of Disease or of Repeated Accidents, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, vol.83, p.216, 1920.

H. Gregorius, On the concept of effective number, vol.2, p.58, 1991.

, « Distribution of variation over populations, Theory in Biosciences, vol.128, p.207, 2009.

, Linking Diversity and Differentiation ». In : Diversity 2.3, p.61, 0207.

, « Partitioning of diversity : the "within communities" component, Web Ecology, vol.14, p.58, 2014.

, « Effective numbers in the partitioning of biological diversity, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.409, p.149, 2016.

P. Greig-smith, Quantitative Plant Ecology, p.233, 1983.

J. Grilli, S. Azaele, J. R. Banavar, and A. Maritan, , 2012.

, « Spatial aggregation and the species-area relationship across scales, p.241

R. C. Guiasu and S. Guiasu, « The weighted quadratic index of biodiversity for pairs of species : a generalization of Rao's index, Natural Science 3.9, vol.179, p.118, 2011.

, « The Weighted Gini-Simpson Index : Revitalizing an Old Index of Biodiversity, International Journal of Ecology, vol.478728, p.118, 2012.

B. Haegeman, J. Hamelin, J. Moriarty, P. Neal, J. Dushoff et al., « Robust estimation of microbial diversity in theory and in practice, The ISME journal, vol.7, issue.6, p.68, 2013.

R. K. Hankin, « Introducing untb, an R Package For Simulating Ecological Drift Under the Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity, Journal of Statistical Software, vol.22, p.218, 2007.

G. H. Hardy, J. E. Littlewood, and G. Pólya, Inequalities, p.127, 1952.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01374624

O. J. Hardy and L. Jost, « Interpreting and estimating measures of community phylogenetic structuring, Journal of Ecology, vol.96, p.179, 2008.

O. J. Hardy and B. Senterre, « Characterizing the phylogenetic structure of communities by an additive partitioning of phylogenetic diversity, Journal of Ecology, vol.95, p.179, 2007.

J. Harte, A. Kinzig, and J. Green, « Self-similarity in the distribution and abundance of species, Science 284, vol.5412, p.241, 1999.

J. Hausser, K. Et, and . Strimmer, « Entropy inference and the James-Stein estimator, with application to nonlinear gene association networks, Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol.10, p.49, 2009.

J. Havrda, F. Et, and . Charvát, « Quantification method of classification processes. Concept of structural alphaentropy, p.58, 1967.

R. Heller, H. R. Et, ;. Siegismund, D. , and G. , « Relationship between three measures of genetic differentiation G(ST), how wrong have we been ? » In : Molecular Ecology 18, vol.10, p.177, 2009.

M. R. Helmus, T. J. Bland, C. K. Williams, and A. R. Ives, « Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity, The American naturalist, vol.169, p.106, 2007.

J. F. Heltshe and N. E. Forrester, « Estimating species richness using the jackknife procedure, Biometrics 39.1, p.26, 1983.

J. Hey, « The mind of the species problem, Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16, vol.7, p.4, 2001.

M. O. Hill, « Diversity and Evenness : A Unifying Notation and Its Consequences, Ecology 54, vol.2, p.81, 1973.

S. Hoffmann, A. Et, and . Hoffmann, « Is there a "true" diversity ?, Ecological Economics, vol.65, p.61, 2008.

L. R. Holdridge, W. C. Grenke, W. H. Hatheway, T. Liang, and J. A. Tosi, Forest environments in tropical life zones, p.38, 1971.

D. G. Horvitz and D. J. Thompson, « A generalization of sampling without replacement from a finite universe, Journal of the American Statistical Association 47, vol.260, p.46, 1952.

T. C. Hsieh, K. H. Ma, and A. Chao, « iNEXT : An R package for interpolation and extrapolation in measuring species diversity, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.7, p.72, 2016.

S. P. Hubbell, « Estimating the global number of tropical tree species, and Fisher's paradox ». In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.24, p.41, 2015.

S. P. Hubbell, The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography, vol.218, pp.213-215, 2001.

S. H. Hurlbert, « The Nonconcept of Species Diversity : A Critique and Alternative Parameters, Ecology 52, vol.4, p.42, 1971.

K. Hutcheson, « A Test for Comparing Diversities Based on the Shannon Formula, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.29, p.45, 1970.

G. E. Hutchinson, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, p.100, 1957.

W. Hwang, C. Lin, and T. Shen, « GoodTuring frequency estimation in a finite population, Biometrical journal, vol.57, p.16, 2014.

K. J. Iknayan, M. W. Tingley, B. J. Furnas, and S. R. Beissinger, « Detecting diversity : emerging methods to estimate species diversity, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.29, pp.97-106, 2014.

V. M. Ili?, M. Stankovi?, and E. H. Mulali?, « Comments on "Generalization of Shannon-Khinchin Axioms to Nonextensive Systems and the Uniqueness Theorem for the Nonextensive Entropy", IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 59, vol.10, p.204, 2013.

N. J. Isaac, S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman, and J. E. Baillie, « Mammals on the EDGE : Conservation Priorities Based on Threat and Phylogeny, 2007.

C. Izsak, A. R. Et, and . Price, « Measuring ?-diversity using a taxonomic similarity index , and its relation to spatial scale, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.215, p.162, 2001.

J. Izsák, L. Et, and . Papp, « A link between ecological diversity indices and measures of biodiversity, Ecological Modelling, vol.130, p.113, 2000.

J. Izsák, S. Et, and . Pavoine, « New concentration measures as kinds of the quadratic entropy, Ecological Indicators, vol.11, p.118, 2011.

J. Bibliographie-izsák, S. Et, and . Pavoine, « Links between the species abundance distribution and the shape of the corresponding rank abundance curve, Ecological Indicators 14.1, p.241, 2012.

P. Jaccard, Étude comparative de la distribution florale dans une portion des Alpes et du Jura, vol.37, pp.547-579, 1901.

W. James, C. Et, and . Stein, « Estimation with Quadratic Loss, Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability. Sous la dir. de J. Neyman. T. 1, p.49, 1961.

J. L. Jensen, « Sur les fonctions convexes et les inégalités entre les valeurs moyennes ». French, Acta Mathematica, vol.30, p.47, 1906.

Z. Jizhong, M. Shijun, and C. Changming, « An index of ecosystem diversity, Ecological Modelling, vol.59, pp.151-163, 1991.

C. G. Jones, J. H. Lawton, and M. Shachak, « Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers, Oikos, 69.3, p.251, 1994.

D. Jones, N. Et, and . Matloff, « Statistical Hypothesis Testing in Biology : A Contradiction in Terms, Journal of Economic Entomology, vol.79, p.191, 0192.

L. Jost, « Entropy and diversity, Oikos 113, vol.2, p.61, 2006.

, « Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components, Ecology 88, vol.10, p.221, 2007.

, « GST and its relatives do not measure differentiation, Molecular Ecology 17, vol.18, p.177, 2008.

, GST : Response to Heller and Siegismund (2009) and Ryman and Leimar (2009), p.177, 2009.

, Mismeasuring biological diversity : Response to Hoffmann and Hoffmann, vol.68, p.61, 2008.

, « Independence of alpha and beta diversities, Ecology 91, vol.7, p.169, 2010.

, « The Relation between Evenness and Diversity ». In : Diversity 2.2, vol.79, pp.83-85, 2010.

G. Jurasinski, V. Retzer, and C. Beierkuhnlein, « Inventory, differentiation, and proportional diversity : a consistent terminology for quantifying species diversity, Oecologia 159.1, vol.243, p.149, 2009.

G. D. Kader and M. Perry, « Variability for Categorical Variables, Journal of Statistics Education, vol.15, issue.2, p.103, 2007.

R. A. Kempton and L. R. Taylor, « Models and statistics for species diversity, Nature 262, vol.5571, p.221, 1976.

R. A. Kempton and R. W. Wedderburn, « A comparison of three measures of species diversity, Biometrics, vol.34, p.221, 1978.

C. J. Keylock, « Simpson diversity and the ShannonWiener index as special cases of a generalized entropy, Oikos 109.1, p.59, 2005.

R. Kindt, P. Van-damme, and A. J. Simons, « Tree diversity in western Kenya : Using profiles to characterise richness and evenness, Biodiversity and Conservation 15, vol.4, pp.1253-1270, 2006.

E. Kosman, « Difference and diversity of plant pathogen populations : a new approach for measuring, Phytopathology, vol.86, p.197, 1996.

, « Measuring diversity : from individuals to populations, European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol.138, p.196, 2013.

E. Kosman, K. J. Et, and . Leonard, « Similarity coefficients for molecular markers in studies of genetic relationships between individuals for haploid, diploid, and polyploid species. » In : Molecular ecology 14, vol.2, pp.415-439, 2005.

, « Conceptual analysis of methods applied to assessment of diversity within and distance between populations with asexual or mixed mode of reproduction, The New phytologist, vol.174, pp.683-96, 2007.

R. Krishnamani, A. Kumar, and J. Harte, « Estimating species richness at large spatial scales using data from small discrete plots, Ecography 27, vol.5, p.241, 2004.

S. Kullback, R. A. Et, and . Leibler, The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 22, vol.1, p.56, 1951.

E. Laliberté, P. Et, and . Legendre, « A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits, Ecology 91.1, p.103, 2010.

P. W. Lamberti and A. P. Majtey, « Non-logarithmic Jensen-Shannon divergence, Physica A, vol.329, issue.1-2, p.174, 2003.

R. Lande, « Statistics and partitioning of species diversity, and similarity among multiple communities, Oikos 76.1, vol.150, p.43, 1996.

R. Lande, P. J. Devries, and T. R. Walla, « When species accumulation curves intersect : implications for ranking diversity using small samples, Oikos 89, vol.3, p.63, 2000.

S. Lavorel, K. Grigulis, S. Mcintyre, N. S. Williams, D. Garden et al., « Assessing functional diversity in the field-Methodology matters ! » In : Functional Ecology, vol.22, pp.134-147, 2008.

P. Legendre, « Interpreting the replacement and richness difference components of beta diversity, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.23, p.160, 2014.

P. Legendre, M. J. Et, and . Anderson, « Distance-based redundancy analysis : testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments, Ecological Monographs 69, vol.1, p.147, 1999.

P. Legendre, D. Borcard, and P. R. Peres-neto, , 2005.

, Analyzing Beta Diversity : Partitioning the Spatial Variation of Community Composition Data, Ecological Monographs 75, vol.4, p.147

P. Legendre, M. Et, and . De-cáceres, « Beta diversity as the variance of community data : Dissimilarity coefficients and partitioning, Ecology Letters, vol.16, p.166, 2013.

P. E. Legendre and . Gallagher, « Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data, Oecologia 129, vol.2, p.147, 2001.

P. Legendre, L. Et, and . Legendre, Numerical Ecology, vol.158, p.94, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00530195

T. Leinster, « The Magnitude of Metric Spaces, Documenta Mathematica, vol.18, p.127, 2013.

T. Leinster, C. Et, and . Cobbold, « Measuring diversity : the importance of species similarity, Ecology 93, vol.3, p.134, 2012.

R. Levins, Evolution in Changing Environments : Some Theoretical Explorations, vol.206, p.205, 1968.

R. Lewontin, « The apportionment of human diversity, Evolutionary Biology. Sous la dir, p.170, 1972.

J. Lin, « Divergence Measures Based on the Shannon Entropy, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol.37, p.170, 1991.

H. Lineweaver, D. Et, and . Burk, « The Determination of Enzyme Dissociation Constants, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.56, p.37, 1934.

J. C. Lingoes, « Some boundary conditions for a monotone analysis of symmetric matrices, Psychometrika 36, p.92, 1971.

C. Liu, R. J. Whittaker, K. Ma, and J. R. Malcolm, « Unifying and distinguishing diversity ordering methods for comparing communities, Population Ecology, vol.49, p.63, 2006.

D. Liu, D. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Wu, V. P. Singh et al., , 2016.

, Entropy of hydrological systems under small samples : Uncertainty and variability, Journal of Hydrology, vol.532, p.50

M. Lloyd, R. J. Et, and . Ghelardi, « A Table for Calculating the 'Equitability' Component of Species Diversity, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.33, p.79, 1964.

J. Loh, R. E. Green, T. Ricketts, J. Lamoreux, M. Jenkins et al., The Living Planet Index : using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity. » In : Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B : Biological Sciences 360, p.251, 1454.

W. M. Lonsdale, « Global Patterns of Plant Invasions and the Concept of Invasibility, Ecology 80, vol.5, p.234, 1999.

M. Loreau, R. ;-de, J. Barbault, and . Duc, « Discours de clôture, Actes de la Conférence internationale Biodiversité Science et Gouvernance. Sous la dir, pp.254-256, 2005.

M. O. Lorenz, « Methods of Measuring the concentration of Wealth, Quarterly Publications of the American Statistical Association 9, p.79, 1905.

A. Ludovisi and M. I. Taticchi, « Investigating beta diversity by Kullback-Leibler information measures, Ecological Modelling 192.1-2, p.170, 2006.

E. Maasoumi, « A compendium to information theory in economics and econometrics, Econometric Reviews 12, vol.2, p.53, 1993.

R. H. Macarthur, « Fluctuations of Animal Populations and a Measure of Community Stability, Ecology 36, vol.3, p.56, 1955.

, « On the Relative Abundance of Bird Species, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 43, vol.3, p.14, 1957.

, « Patterns of species diversity, Biological Reviews, vol.40, pp.510-533, 1965.

Z. G. Macdonald, S. E. Nielsen, and J. H. Acorn, , 2017.

, « Negative relationships between species richness and evenness render common diversity indices inadequate for assessing long-term trends in butterfly diversity, Biodiversity and Conservation, vol.26, p.85

A. E. Magurran, Ecological diversity and its measurement, p.14, 1988.

, Measuring Biological Diversity, p.213, 2004.

E. Maire, G. Grenouillet, S. Brosse, and S. Villéger, « How many dimensions are needed to accurately assess functional diversity ? A pragmatic approach for assessing the quality of functional spaces, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.24, p.94, 2015.

C. X. Mao, « Estimating Species Accumulation Curves and Diversity Indices, Statistica Sinica, vol.17, p.51, 2007.

C. X. Mao and R. K. Colwell, « Estimation of Species Richness : Mixture Models, the Role of Rare Species, and Inferential Challenges, Ecology 86, vol.5, p.22, 2005.

E. Marcon, « Practical Estimation of Diversity from Abundance Data, HAL 01212435.version, vol.2, p.70, 2015.

E. Marcon, B. Et, and . Hérault, « Decomposing Phylodiversity, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.6, p.185, 2015.

, « entropart, an R Package to Measure and Partition Diversity, Journal of Statistical Software, vol.67, p.11, 2015.

E. Marcon, B. Hérault, C. Baraloto, and G. Lang, , 2012.

, « The Decomposition of Shannon's Entropy and a Confidence Interval for Beta Diversity, Oikos 121, vol.4, p.181

E. Marcon, B. Scotti, V. Hérault, G. Rossi, and . Lang, « Generalization of the Partitioning of Shannon Diversity, Plos One 9, vol.3, p.191, 0192.

E. Marcon, Z. Zhang, and B. Hérault, « The Decomposition of Similarity-Based Diversity and its Bias Bibliographie Correction, HAL 00989454.version, vol.3, p.181, 2014.

R. Margalef, « Temporal Succession and Spatial Heterogeneity in Phytoplankton, Perspectives in Marine Biology. Sous la dir. d'A. Buzzati-Traverso, 1958.

C. Berkeley, , p.213

N. W. Mason, K. Macgillivray, J. B. Steel, and J. B. Wilson, « An index of functional diversity, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.14, p.102, 2003.

N. W. Mason, D. Mouillot, W. G. Lee, and J. , « Functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence : the primary components of functional diversity, Oikos 111.1, vol.100, p.99, 2005.

B. Matérn, Meddelanden från Statens Skogsforskningsinstitut 49, vol.5, p.231, 1960.

R. M. May, « Patterns of species abundance and diversity, Ecology and Evolution of Communities. Sous la dir. de M. L. Cody et J. M. Diamond, vol.235, p.85, 1975.

, « Taxonomy as Destiny, Nature, vol.347, p.91, 1990.

, « Why Worry about How Many Species and Their Loss ?, PLoS Biology 9, vol.8, p.41, 2011.

R. M. May and M. P. Stumpf, « Species-Area Relations in Tropical Forests, Science 290, vol.5499, p.235, 2000.

R. L. Mayden, « A hierarchy of species concepts : the denouement in the saga of the species problem, Species. The units of biodiversity. Sous la dir, vol.19, pp.381-424, 1997.

E. Mayr, Systematics and the origin of species from the viewpoint of a zoologist, 1942.

B. J. Mcgill, « A test of the unified neutral theory of biodiversity, Nature 422, vol.6934, p.240, 2003.

B. J. Mcgill, R. S. Etienne, J. S. Gray, D. Alonso, M. J. Anderson et al., , 2007.

, « Species abundance distributions : moving beyond single prediction theories to integration within an ecological framework, Ecology Letters, vol.10, pp.995-1015

K. A. Mcguinness, « Equations and Explanations in the Study of Species-Area Curves, Biological Reviews, vol.59, p.233, 1984.

R. P. Mcintosh, « An Index of Diversity and the Relation of Certain Concepts to Diversity, Ecology 48, vol.3, pp.392-404, 1967.

C. Meine, M. Soulé, and R. F. Noss, « "A missiondriven discipline" : The growth of conservation biology, Conservation Biology 20, vol.3, pp.631-651, 2006.

R. S. Mendes, L. R. Evangelista, S. M. Thomaz, A. A. Agostinho, and L. C. Gomes, « A unified index to measure ecological diversity and species rarity, Ecography 31, vol.4, p.59, 2008.

E. F. Menhinick, « A Comparison of Some SpeciesIndividuals Diversity Indices Applied to Samples of Field Insects, Ecology 45, vol.4, p.213, 1964.

B. Mérigot and . Gaertner, « Incorporation of phylogeny in biological diversity measurement : Drawbacks of extensively used indices, and advantages of quadratic entropy, BioEssays 33, vol.11, p.102, 2011.

L. Michaelis, M. L. Et, and . Menten, Die Kinetik der Invertinwirkung, vol.49, p.36, 1913.

G. A. Miller, « Note on the bias of information estimates, Information Theory in Psychology : Problems and Methods. Sous la dir, p.46, 1955.

A. Miraldo, S. Li, M. K. Borregaard, A. Florez-rodriguez, S. Gopalakrishnan et al., « An Anthropocene map of genetic diversity, Science 353, vol.6307, pp.1532-1535, 2016.

A. Ø. Mooers and S. B. Heard, « Inferring Evolutionary Process from Phylogenetic Tree Shape, The Quarterly Review of Biology 72, vol.1, p.96, 1997.

C. Mora, D. P. Tittensor, S. Adl, A. G. Simpson, and B. Worm, « How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean ?, PLoS Biology 9, vol.8, p.40, 2011.

C. E. Moreno and P. Rodríguez, « A consistent terminology for quantifying species diversity ?, Oecologia 163, vol.2, pp.279-82, 2010.

I. Motomura, « On the statistical treatment of communities, Zoological Magazine, vol.44, p.14, 1932.

J. Motyka, O celach i metodach badan geobotanicznych, Sur les buts et les méthodes des recherches géobotaniques, p.157, 1947.

M. A. Mouchet, F. Guilhaumon, S. Villéger, N. W. Mason, J. Tomasini et al., « Towards a consensus for calculating dendrogram-based functional diversity indices, Oikos 117, vol.101, p.94, 2008.

M. A. Mouchet and D. Mouillot, « Decomposing phylogenetic entropy into ?, ? and ? components, Biology Letters, p.186, 2011.

D. Mouillot, A. Et, and . Leprêtre, « A comparison of species diversity estimators, Researches on Population Ecology 41, vol.2, p.22, 1999.

D. Mouillot, W. H. Mason, O. Dumay, and J. B. Wilson, « Functional regularity : a neglected aspect of functional diversity, Oecologia 142, vol.3, p.101, 2005.

D. Mouillot, W. Stubbs, M. Faure, O. Dumay, J. Tomasini et al., « Niche overlap estimates based on quantitative functional traits : a new family of non-parametric indices, Oecologia 145, vol.3, pp.345-353, 2005.

M. Nei, Genetic Distance between Populations, vol.106, p.130, 1972.

, « Analysis of Gene Diversity in Subdivided Populations, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 70, vol.12, p.176, 1973.

J. C. Nekola and P. S. White, « The Distance Decay of Similarity in Biogeography and Ecology, Journal of Biogeography 26, vol.4, pp.867-878, 1999.

J. Neyman, E. L. Et, and . Scott, « Statistical Approach to Problems of Cosmology, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society : Series B (Statistical Methodology), vol.20, issue.1, p.230, 1958.

J. L. Norris and K. H. Pollock, « Non-parametric MLE for Poisson species abundance models allowing for heterogeneity between species, Environmental and Ecological Statistics, vol.5, p.34, 1998.

R. B. O'hara, « Species richness estimators : How many species can dance on the head of a pin ?, In : Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.74, p.22, 2005.

A. Ochiai, « Zoogeographic studies on the soleoid fishes found in Japan and its neighbouring regions, Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 22, vol.9, p.154, 1957.

E. P. Odum, « Bird Populations of the Highlands (North Carolina) Plateau in Relation to Plant Succession and Avian Invasion, Ecology 31, vol.4, p.158, 1950.

J. Oksanen, F. G. Blanchet, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, P. R. Minchin et al., vegan : Community Ecology Package, vol.223, p.12, 2012.

T. D. Olszewski, « A unified mathematical framework for the measurement of richness and evenness within and among multiple communities, Oikos 104, vol.2, pp.377-387, 2004.

R. T. Paine, « A note on trophic complexity and community stability, American naturalist 103, vol.929, p.251, 1969.

P. Pallmann, F. Schaarschmidt, L. A. Hothorn, C. Fischer, H. Nacke et al., « Assessing group differences in biodiversity by simultaneously testing a user-defined selection of diversity indices, Molecular Ecology Resources, vol.12, p.63, 2012.

G. P. Patil and C. Taillie, « Diversity as a concept and its measurement, Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol.77, p.59, 1982.

S. Pavoine, M. B. Et, and . Bonsall, « Biological diversity : Distinct distributions can lead to the maximization of Rao's quadratic entropy, Theoretical Population Biology, vol.75, issue.2-3, p.121, 2009.

, « Measuring biodiversity to explain community assembly : a unified approach, Biological Reviews, vol.86, pp.792-812, 2011.

S. Pavoine, A. Dufour, and D. Chessel, « From dissimilarities among species to dissimilarities among communities : a double principal coordinate analysis, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.228, p.177, 2004.

S. Pavoine, J. Et, and . Izsák, « New biodiversity measure that includes consistent interspecific and intraspecific components, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.5, p.137, 2014.

S. Pavoine, M. S. Love, and M. B. Bonsall, « Hierarchical partitioning of evolutionary and ecological patterns in the organization of phylogenetically-structured species assemblages : Application to rockfish (genus : Sebastes) in the Southern California Bight, Ecology Letters, vol.12, p.119, 2009.

S. Pavoine, E. Marcon, and C. Ricotta, « 'Equivalent numbers' for species, phylogenetic or functional diversity in a nested hierarchy of multiple scales, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.250, p.187, 2016.

S. Pavoine, S. Ollier, and A. Dufour, « Is the originality of a species measurable ?, In : Ecology Letters, vol.8, pp.114-116, 2005.

S. Pavoine, S. Ollier, and D. Pontier, « Measuring diversity from dissimilarities with Rao's quadratic entropy : Are any dissimilarities suitable ?, In : Theoretical Population Biology, vol.67, p.114, 2005.

S. Pavoine, C. Et, and . Ricotta, « Functional and phylogenetic similarity among communities, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.5, p.135, 2014.

S. Pavoine, J. Vallet, A. Dufour, S. Gachet, and H. Daniel, « On the challenge of treating various types of variables : application for improving the measurement of functional diversity, Oikos 118, vol.3, pp.391-402, 2009.

K. Pearson, « On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen from random sampling, Philosophical Magazine Series, vol.5, issue.50, p.73, 1900.

, « On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space, Philosophical Magazine, vol.2, p.163, 1901.

R. K. Peet, « The measurement of species diversity, Annual review of ecology and systematics, vol.5, p.21, 1974.

R. Pélissier, P. Et, and . Couteron, « An operational, additive framework for species diversity partitioning and beta-diversity analysis, Journal of Ecology, vol.95, p.195, 2007.

R. Pélissier, P. Couteron, S. Dray, and D. Sabatier, , 2003.

, « Consistency between ordination techniques and diversity measurements : Two strategies for species occurrence data, vol.84, p.195

H. M. Pereira, S. Ferrier, M. Walters, G. N. Geller, R. H. Jongman et al.,

C. Gregory, R. Heip, G. Höft, W. Hurtt, D. S. Jetz et al., Essential biodiversity variables, vol.339, p.251, 2013.

J. Pernès, Gestion des ressources génétiques des plantes. Tome 2 : Manuel. Paris : Agence de Coopération culturelle et technique (cf, 1984.

O. L. Petchey and K. J. Gaston, « Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition, Ecology Letters, vol.5, p.101, 2002.

N. Picard, M. Karembe, and P. Birnbaum, « Speciesarea curve and spatial pattern, Ecoscience 11.1, vol.231, p.230, 2004.

E. C. Pielou, « Species-diversity and pattern-diversity in the study of ecological succession, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.10, issue.66, p.47, 1966.

, « The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections, Journal of Theoretical Biology 13.C, p, vol.82, p.44, 1966.

, An Introduction to Mathematical Ecology, p.225, 1969.

, « Niche width and niche overlap : a method for measuring them, Ecology 53, vol.4, p.205, 1972.

, Ecological Diversity, vol.82, p.53, 1975.

J. B. Plotkin and H. C. Muller-landau, « Sampling the species composition of a landscape, Ecology 83, vol.12, p.83, 2002.

J. B. Plotkin, M. D. Potts, N. Leslie, N. Manokaran, J. V. Lafrankie et al., « Speciesarea curves, spatial aggregation, and habitat specialization in tropical forests, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.207, p.230, 2000.

J. B. Plotkin, M. D. Potts, D. W. Yu, S. Bunyavejchewin, R. Condit et al., « Predicting species diversity in tropical forests, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97, vol.20, pp.235-237, 2000.

J. Podani, « Extending Gower's General Coefficient of Similarity to Ordinal Characters, Taxon 48, vol.2, p.94, 1999.

J. Podani, C. Ricotta, and D. Schmera, « A general framework for analyzing beta diversity, nestedness and related community-level phenomena based on abundance data, Ecological Complexity, vol.15, p.160, 2013.

J. Podani, D. Et, and . Schmera, « On dendrogram-based measures of functional diversity, Oikos 115.1, vol.141, p.94, 2006.

, « How should a dendrogram-based measure of functional diversity function ? A rejoinder to Petchey and Gaston, Oikos 116, vol.8, p.94, 2007.

, « A new conceptual and methodological framework for exploring and explaining pattern in presence-absence data, Oikos 120, vol.11, p.159, 2011.

, « Once again on the components of pairwise beta diversity, Ecological Informatics, vol.32, p.160, 2016.

S. J. Presley, S. M. Scheiner, and M. R. Willig, , 2014.

, « Evaluation of an integrated framework for biodiversity with a new metric for functional dispersion, PloS one 9, vol.8, p.108

F. W. Preston, « The Commonness, And Rarity, of Species, Ecology 29, vol.3, p.13, 1948.

, « Time and Space and the Variation of Species, Ecology 41, vol.4, p.214, 1960.

, « The Canonical Distribution of Commonness and Rarity : Part I, Ecology 43, vol.2, p.234, 1962.

A. Purvis, A. Et, and . Hector, « Getting the measure of biodiversity. » In : Nature 405, vol.6783, p.4, 2000.

. R-core-team, R : A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, p.11, 2017.

J. G. Raaijmakers, « Statistical Analysis of the Michaelis-Menten Equation, Biometrics 43, vol.4, p.36, 1987.

R. Rajaram, B. Et, and . Castellani, « An entropy based measure for comparing distributions of complexity, Physica A : Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 453, p.76, 2016.

C. R. Rao, « The Use and Interpretation of Principal Component Analysis in Applied Research, Sankhy¯ a, vol.26, p.166, 1964.

, « Diversity and dissimilarity coefficients : a unified approach, Theoretical Population Biology, vol.21, p.163, 1982.

C. R. Rao and T. K. Nayak, « Cross entropy, dissimilarity measures, and characterizations of quadratic entropy, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol.31, p.170, 1985.

M. Réjou-méchain, O. Flores, N. Bourland, J. Doucet, R. F. Fétéké et al., , 2011.

, « Spatial aggregation of tropical trees at multiple spatial scales, Journal of Ecology, vol.99, pp.1373-1381

O. Renkonen, « Statisch-ökologische Untersuchungen über die terrestrische Käferwelt der finnischen Bruchmoore, Annales botanici Societatis Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae Vanamo, vol.6, p.158, 1938.

A. Rényi, 4th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability. Sous la dir. de J. Neyman. T. 1, pp.547-561, 1961.

C. Richard-hansen, G. Jaouen, T. Denis, O. Brunaux, E. Marcon et al., « Landscape patterns influence communities of medium-to large-bodied vertebrate in undisturbed terra firme forests of French Guiana, Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol.31, p.193, 2015.

R. A. Richards, The Species Problem. A Philosophical Analysis, 2010.

C. Ricotta, « On parametric evenness measures, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.222, pp.189-197, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/s0022-5193(03)00026-2

, « A parametric diversity measure combining the relative abundances and taxonomic distinctiveness of species, Diversity and Distributions 10, vol.2, pp.143-146, 2004.

, « A recipe for unconventional evenness measures, Acta Biotheoretica, vol.52, p.80, 2004.

, « A note on functional diversity measures, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol.6, p.96, 2005.

, « Additive partitioning of Rao's quadratic diversity : a hierarchical approach, Ecological Modelling 183, vol.4, p.122, 2005.

, « On parametric diversity indices in ecology : A historical note, Community Ecology, vol.6, p.59, 2005.

, « Through the jungle of biological diversity, Acta Biotheoretica, vol.53, pp.29-38, 2005.

, « Strong requirements for weak diversities, Diversity and Distributions, vol.12, p.105, 2006.

, « A semantic taxonomy for diversity measures, Acta Biotheoretica, vol.55, p.6, 2007.

, « Computing parametric beta diversity with unequal plot weights : A solution based on resampling methods, Theoretical Ecology 2.1, pp.13-17, 2009.

, « On hierarchical diversity decomposition, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.16, pp.223-226, 2009.

C. Ricotta, A. T. Et, and . Acosta, « On the functional diversity of partially distinct species : some theory and a practical example, Community Ecology 15, vol.2, p.123, 2014.

C. Ricotta, G. C. Et, and . Avena, « An informationtheoretical measure of beta-diversity, Plant Biosystems 137.1, p.170, 2003.

, « An information-theoretical measure of taxonomic diversity, Acta biotheoretica 25, vol.51, p.21, 2003.

, « A 'fast-food approach' to the standardization of quadratic diversity, Plant Biosystems, vol.139, p.117, 2005.

C. Ricotta, G. Et, and . Bacaro, « On plot-to-plot dissimilarity measures based on species functional traits, Community Ecology 11.1, p.161, 2010.

C. Ricotta, G. Bacaro, M. Caccianiga, B. E. Cerabolini, and M. Moretti, « A classical measure of phylogenetic dissimilarity and its relationship with beta diversity, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol.16, issue.1, p.179, 2015.

C. Ricotta, G. Bacaro, M. Marignani, S. Godefroid, and S. Mazzoleni, « Computing diversity from dated phylogenies and taxonomic hierarchies : Does it make a difference to the conclusions ?, Oecologia 170, vol.2, p.93, 2012.

C. Ricotta, G. Bacaro, and S. Pavoine, « A cautionary note on some phylogenetic dissimilarity measures, Journal of Plant Ecology, vol.8, issue.1, p.163, 2014.

C. Ricotta, S. Et, and . Burrascano, « Beta diversity for functional ecology, Preslia 80.1, p.161, 2008.

, « Testing for differences in beta diversity with asymmetric dissimilarities, Ecological Indicators 9, vol.4, p.168, 2009.

C. Ricotta, E. De-zuliani, A. Pacini, and G. C. Avena, « On the mutual relatedness of evenness measures, Community Ecology 2.1, p.81, 2001.

C. Ricotta, M. Et, and . Marignani, « Computing ?diversity with Rao's quadratic entropy : A change of perspective, Diversity and Distributions 13, vol.2, p.151, 2007.

C. Ricotta, M. Et, and . Moretti, « CWM and Rao's quadratic diversity : A unified framework for functional ecology, Oecologia, vol.167, pp.181-188, 2011.

C. Ricotta, L. Et, and . Szeidl, « Towards a unifying approach to diversity measures : Bridging the gap between the Shannon entropy and Rao's quadratic index, Theoretical Population Biology, vol.70, p.129, 2006.

, « Diversity partitioning of Rao's quadratic entropy, Theoretical Population Biology, vol.76, p.123, 2009.

J. Roberge, P. Et, and . Angelstam, « Usefulness of the Umbrella Species Concept as a Conservation Tool, Conservation Biology 18.1, p.251, 2004.

R. D. Routledge, « Diversity indices : Which ones are admissible ?, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.76, pp.503-515, 1979.

, Evenness indices : Are any admissible ? » In : Oikos 40.1, p.80, 1983.

B. Runnegar, « Rates and Modes of Evolution in the Mollusca, Rates of Evolution. Sous la dir. de M. Campbell et M. F. Day. London : Allen & Unwin, pp.39-60, 1987.

M. Ru?i?ka, « Anwendung mathematisch-statisticher Methoden in der Geobotanik (synthetische Bearbeitung von Aufnahmen), Biologia, Bratislava, vol.13, p.158, 1958.

N. Ryman, O. Et, and . Leimar, « G(ST) is still a useful measure of genetic differentiation-a comment on Jost's D », Molecular Ecology 18, vol.10, p.177, 2009.

S. M. Scheiner, « Six types of species-area curves, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.12, p.12, 2003.

, « A metric of biodiversity that integrates abundance, phylogeny, and function, Oikos 121, vol.8, p.108, 2012.

D. Schleuter, M. Daufresne, F. Massol, and C. Argillier, « A user's guide to functional diversity indices, Ecological Monographs, vol.80, p.99, 2010.

D. Schmera, T. Er?s, and J. Podani, « A measure for assessing functional diversity in ecological communities, Aquatic Ecology 43.1, p.102, 2009.

R. J. Scholes and R. Biggs, « A Biodiversity Intactness Index, Nature 434, vol.7029, p.251, 2005.

R. P. Schulte, E. A. Lantinga, and M. J. Hawkins, , 2005.

, A new family of Fisher-curves estimates Fisher's alpha more accurately, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.232, p.219

T. Bibliographie-schürmann, « Bias analysis in entropy estimation, Journal of Physics A : Mathematical and General, vol.37, p.48, 2004.

C. E. Shannon, « A Mathematical Theory of Communication, The Bell System Technical Journal, vol.27, p.44, 1948.

C. E. Shannon and W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, vol.53, p.44, 1963.

A. L. Sheldon, « Equitability indices : dependence on the species count, Ecology 50, vol.3, pp.81-83, 1969.

G. Shen, T. Wiegand, X. Mi, and F. He, « Quantifying spatial phylogenetic structures of fully stem-mapped plant communities, Methods in Ecology and Evolution 4, vol.12, p.243, 2013.

T. Shen, A. Chao, and C. Lin, « Predicting the number of new species in a further taxonomic sampling, Ecology, vol.84, p.33, 2003.

K. Shimatani, « Multivariate point processes and spatial variation of species diversity, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.142, p.122, 2001.

, « On the measurement of species diversity incorporating species differences, Oikos 93.1, pp.135-147, 2001.

E. H. Simpson, « Measurement of diversity, Nature 163, vol.4148, p.42, 1949.

G. G. Simpson, « Mammals and the Nature of Continents, American Journal of Science, vol.241, p.159, 1943.

J. W. Slik, « An estimate of the number of tropical tree species, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, vol.24, p.241, 2015.

B. Smith, J. B. Et, and . Wilson, « A consumer's guide to evenness indices, Oikos 76.1, vol.83, p.79, 1996.

E. P. Smith and G. V. Belle, « Nonparametric Estimation of Species Richness, Biometrics 40.1, p.29, 1984.

W. Smith, J. F. Et, and . Grassle, « Sampling properties of a family of diversity measures, Biometrics 33, vol.2, p.51, 1977.

M. Soberón and B. Llorente, « The Use of Species Accumulation Functions for the Prediction of Species Richness, Conservation Biology, p.38, 1993.

F. L. Sobral, A. C. Lees, and M. V. Cianciaruso, , 2016.

, « Introductions do not compensate for functional and phylogenetic losses following extinctions in insular bird assemblages, Ecology Letters, vol.19, p.95

R. R. Sokal and C. D. Michener, « A statistical method for evaluating systematic relationships, The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, vol.38, pp.1409-1438, 1958.

R. R. Sokal and F. J. Rohlf, « The Comparison of Dendrograms by Objective Methods, Taxon 11, vol.2, p.94, 1962.

R. R. Sokal and P. H. Sneath, Principles of numerical taxonomy, p.154, 1963.

D. Sol, C. Bartomeus, S. González-lagos, and . Pavoine, « Urbanisation and the loss of phylogenetic diversity in birds, Ecology Letters, vol.20, p.112, 2017.

A. R. Solow and S. Polasky, « Measuring biological diversity, Environmental and Ecological Statistics, vol.1, issue.2, p.96, 1994.

A. Solow, S. Polasky, and J. Broadus, « On the Measurement of Biological Diversity, Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, vol.24, issue.71, p.119, 1993.

T. Sørensen, « A Method of Establishing Groups of Equal Amplitude in Plant Sociology Based on Similarity of Species Content and Its Application to Analyses of the Vegetation on Danish Commons, Biologiske Skrifter. Biologiske Skrifter, vol.5, p.153, 1948.

J. G. Speth, M. W. Holdgate, and M. K. Tolba, , 1992.

«. Foreword, Global Biodiversity Strategy. Sous la dir. de K. Courrier, p.3

H. Steege, N. C. Ter, D. Pitman, C. Sabatier, R. P. Baraloto et al., , 2013.

, Hyperdominance in the Amazonian Tree Flora, vol.6156, p.241

G. D. Steel, « Relation Between Poisson and Multinomial Distributions, Biometrics Unit Technical Reports. Cornell University. Biometrics Unit. Chap, p.225, 1953.

J. C. Stegen and A. H. Hurlbert, « Inferring ecological processes from taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional trait ?-diversity. » In : PloS one 6.6, e20906, p.21, 2011.

A. Stirling, « A general framework for analysing diversity in science, technology and society, Journal of the Royal Society, pp.707-719, 2007.

G. Stirling, B. J. Et, and . Wilsey, « Empirical Relationships between Species Richness, Evenness, and Proportional Diversity, The American naturalist, vol.158, p.85, 2001.

J. A. Stoddart, « A genotypic diversity measure, Journal of Heredity, vol.74, p.57, 1983.

D. Stoyan, H. Et, and . Stoyan, Fractals, Random Shapes and Point Fields : Methods of Geometrical Statistics, p.231, 1994.

A. C. Studeny, S. T. Buckland, J. B. Illian, A. Johnston, and A. E. Magurran, « Goodness-of-fit measures of evenness : a new tool for exploring changes in community structure », 2011.

J. Sukumaran, L. L. Et, and . Knowles, « Multispecies coalescent delimits structure, not species ». In : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America in press, 2017.

H. Suyari, « Generalization of Shannon-Khinchin Axioms to the Nonextensive Entropy, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 50, vol.8, p.204, 2004.

N. G. Swenson, P. Anglada-cordero, and J. A. Barone, « Deterministic tropical tree community turnover : evidence from patterns of functional beta diversity along an elevational gradient, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B : Biological Sciences 278.1707, p.163, 2011.

N. G. Swenson and B. J. Enquist, « Opposing assembly mechanisms in a Neotropical dry forest : Implications for phylogenetic and functional community ecology, Ecology 90, vol.8, p.95, 2009.

C. Taillie, « Species equitability : a comparative approach ». In : Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice. Sous la dir, p.81, 1979.

H. Theil, Chicago : Rand McNally & Company (cf, vol.53, p.44, 1967.

D. Tilman, J. Knops, D. Wedin, P. Reich, M. Ritchie et al., « The Influence of Functional Diversity and Composition on Ecosystem Processes, Science 277, vol.5330, p.91, 1997.

B. Tothmeresz, « Comparison of different methods for diversity ordering, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.6, p.63, 1995.

K. A. Triantis, F. Guilhaumon, and R. J. Whittaker, « The island species-area relationship : biology and statistics, Journal of Biogeography, vol.39, p.240, 2012.

C. Tsallis, « Possible generalization of BoltzmannGibbs statistics, Journal of Statistical Physics, vol.52, p.58, 1988.

, « What are the numbers that experiments provide ?, Química Nova 17, vol.6, p.59, 1994.

C. Tsallis, R. S. Mendes, and A. R. Plastino, « The role of constraints within generalized nonextensive statistics, Physica A, vol.261, issue.3, p.173, 1998.

C. M. Tucker, L. G. Shoemaker, K. F. Davies, D. Nemergut, and B. A. Melbourne, « Differentiating between niche and neutral assembly in metacommunities using null models of ?-diversity, Oikos 125, vol.6, p.167, 2016.

H. Tuomisto, « A diversity of beta diversities : straightening up a concept gone awry. Part 1. Defining beta diversity as a function of alpha and gamma diversity, Ecography 33.1, vol.169, p.150, 2010.

, « A diversity of beta diversities : straightening up a concept gone awry. Part 2. Quantifying beta diversity and related phenomena, Ecography 33.1, p.169, 2010.

, « Commentary : do we have a consistent terminology for species diversity ? Yes, if we choose to use it, Oecologia 167, vol.4, p.150, 2011.

, « An updated consumer's guide to evenness and related indices, Oikos 121, vol.8, pp.1203-1218, 2012.

K. I. Ugland, J. S. Gray, and K. E. Ellingsen, « The species-accumulation curve and estimation of species richness, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.72, p.223, 2003.

R. E. Ulanowicz, « Information theory in ecology, Computers & Chemistry, vol.25, pp.393-399, 2001.

L. Van-valen, « Ecological Species, Multispecies, and Oaks, Taxon 25.2/3, pp.233-239, 1976.

R. I. Vane-wright, C. J. Humphries, and P. H. Williams, « What to protect ?-Systematics and the agony of choice, Biological Conservation, vol.55, p.91, 1991.

J. A. Veech and T. O. Crist, « Diversity partitioning without statistical independence of alpha and beta, Ecology 91, vol.7, p.151, 2010.

J. A. Veech, K. S. Summerville, T. O. Crist, and J. C. Gering, « The additive partitioning of species diversity : recent revival of an old idea, Oikos 99, vol.1, pp.3-9, 2002.

M. Vellend, « Do commonly used indices of fdiversity measure species turnover ?, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.12, p.146, 2001.

M. Vellend, W. K. Cornwell, K. Magnuson-ford, and A. Ø. Mooers, « Measuring phylogenetic biodiversity ». In : Biological diversity : frontiers in measurement and assessment. Sous la dir, p.92, 2010.

S. Villéger, E. Maire, F. Leprieur, and ;. , « On the risks of using dendrograms to measure functional diversity and multidimensional spaces to measure phylogenetic diversity : a comment on Sobral, Ecology Letters 20.4. Sous la dir. de M. Vila, p.95, 2016.

S. Villéger, N. W. Mason, and D. Mouillot, , 2008.

, New multidimensional functional diversity indices for a multifaceted framework in functional ecology, Ecology 89, vol.8, p.101

S. Villéger, D. Et, and . Mouillot, « Additive partitioning of diversity including species differences : a comment on Hardy & Senterre (2007), Journal of Bibliographie Ecology, vol.96, p.179, 2008.

M. Vinck, F. P. Battaglia, V. B. Balakirsky, A. J. Vinck, and C. M. Pennartz, « Estimation of the entropy based on its polynomial representation, Physical Review E, vol.85, p.47, 2012.

I. Volkov, J. R. Banavar, S. P. Hubbell, and A. Maritan, « Neutral theory and relative species abundance in ecology, Nature 424, vol.6952, p.241, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nature01883

URL : http://arxiv.org/pdf/q-bio/0504018

V. Q. Vu, B. Yu, and R. E. Kass, « Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation, Statistics in Medicine, vol.26, p.46, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.2942

URL : http://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~vqv/pub/entropy.pdf

H. H. Wagner, « Spatial covariance in plant communities : Integrating ordination, geostatistics, and variance testing, Ecology 84, vol.4, p.244, 2003.
DOI : 10.1890/0012-9658(2003)084[1045:scipci]2.0.co;2

URL : https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/75569/1/spatial_covariance.pdf

B. H. Walker, « Biodiversity and Ecological Redundancy, Conservation biology 6.1, p, p.91, 1992.

B. Walker, A. Kinzig, and J. Langridge, « Plant Attribute Diversity, Resilience, and Ecosystem Function : The Nature and Significance of Dominant and Minor Species ». In : Ecosystems 2.2, p.102, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s100219900062

J. Wang, « Estimating species richness by a Poisson-compound gamma model, Biometrika 97, vol.3, p.35, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/biomet/asq026

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3372246?pdf=render

, « SPECIES : An R Package for Species Richness Estimation, Journal of Statistical Software, vol.40, p.30, 2011.

J. Wang, B. Lindsay, L. Cui, P. K. Wall, J. Marion et al., « Gene capture prediction and overlap estimation in EST sequencing from one or multiple libraries, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.6, p.35, 2005.

R. M. Warwick and K. R. Clarke, « New 'biodiversity' measures reveal a decrease in taxonomic distinctness with increasing stress, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol.129, p.91, 1995.

, « Practical Measures of Marine Biodiversity Based on Relatedness of Species, Oceanography and Marine Biology, 2001.

M. Gibson, R. J. Barnes, and . Atkinson, , vol.39, p.93

C. O. Webb, « Exploring the phylogenetic structure of ecological communities : An example for rain forest trees, American Naturalist, vol.156, p.95, 2000.

C. O. Webb, D. D. Ackerly, and S. W. Kembel, , 2008.

«. Phylocom, Software for the analysis of phylogenetic community structure and trait evolution, Bioinformatics 24, vol.18, p.162

C. O. Webb, J. B. Losos, and A. A. , Agrawal (2006). « Integrating Phylogenies into Community Ecology, Ecology 87.sp7, vol.2, p.91

H. Weikard, M. Punt, and J. Wesseler, « Diversity measurement combining relative abundances and taxonomic distinctiveness of species, Diversity and Distributions, vol.12, p.105, 2006.

M. L. Weitzman, On Diversity, vol.107, p.96, 1992.

, « What to Preserve ? An Application of Diversity Theory to Crane Conservation, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.108, p.113, 1993.

M. Westoby, D. S. Falster, A. T. Moles, P. A. Vesk, and I. J. Wright, « PLANT ECOLOGICAL STRATEGIES : Some Leading Dimensions of Variation Between Species, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol.33, p.93, 2002.

M. C. Whitlock, « G'ST and D do not replace FST, Molecular Ecology, vol.20, p.177, 2011.

R. H. Whittaker, « Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California ». In : Ecological Monographs 30, vol.3, pp.279-338, 1960.

, « Dominance and diversity in land plant communities, Science 147, vol.3655, p.5, 1965.

, « Evolution and Measurement of Species Diversity, Taxon 21.2/3, vol.150, p.14, 1972.

, « Evolution of species diversity in land communities, Evolutionary Biology 10. Sous la dir, pp.1-67, 1977.

C. B. Williams, Patterns in the balance of nature, p.238, 1964.

P. H. Williams and K. J. Gaston, « Measuring more of biodiversity : can higher-taxon richness predict wholesale species richness ?, Biological Conservation, vol.67, pp.211-217, 1994.

M. Williamson, K. J. Et, and . Gaston, « The lognormal distribution is not an appropriate null hypothesis for the species-abundance distribution, Journal of Animal Ecology, vol.74, pp.409-422, 2001.

M. Williamson, K. J. Gaston, and W. M. Lonsdale, , 2001.

, The species-area relationship does not have an asymptote !, vol.28, pp.233-235

B. J. Wilsey, D. R. Chalcraft, C. M. Bowles, and M. R. Willig, « Relationships among indicies suggest that richness is an imcomplete surrogate for grassland diversity, Ecology 86, vol.5, p.85, 2005.

E. O. Wilson and F. M. Peter, , p.3, 1988.

J. B. Wilson, R. K. Peet, J. Dengler, and M. Pärtel, , 2012.

, Plant species richness : The world records, Journal of Vegetation Science 23, vol.4, pp.796-802

M. V. Wilson, A. Et, and . Shmida, « Measuring Beta Diversity with Presence-Absence Data, The Journal of Ecology 72, vol.3, p.151, 1984.

L. Witting, V. Et, and . Loeschcke, « The optimization of biodiversity conservation, Biological Conservation, vol.71, pp.205-207, 1995.

H. Wolda, « Similarity indices, sample size and diversity, Oecologia 50, vol.3, p.153, 1981.

I. J. Wright, P. B. Reich, M. Westoby, D. D. Ackerly, Z. Baruch et al.,

Ü. Navas, J. Niinemets, N. Oleksyn, H. Osada, P. Poorter et al., « The worldwide leaf economics spectrum, Nature, vol.428, p.93, 2004.

S. Wright, « Evolution in Mendelian Populations, Genetics 16, vol.2, p.58, 1931.

P. Würtz, A. Et, and . Annila, « Roots of Diversity Relations, Journal of Biophysics, p.239, 2008.

R. R. Yager, « On the specificity of a possibility distribution, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol.50, p.82, 1992.

M. A. Zacharias and J. C. Roff, « Use of focal species in marine conservation and management : a review and critique, Aquatic Conservation : Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, vol.11, p.251, 2001.

L. Zadeh, « Fuzzy sets, Information and Control, vol.8, pp.338-353, 1965.

A. E. Zanne, D. C. Tank, W. K. Cornwell, J. M. Eastman, S. A. Smith et al., « Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments, Nature, vol.506, p.93, 2014.
DOI : 10.1038/nature12872

C. Zhang, Z. Et, and . Zhang, « Asymptotic Normality of a Nonparametric Estimator of Sample Coverage, Annals of Statistics, vol.37, pp.2582-2595, 2009.

J. Zhang, T. O. Crist, and P. Hou, « Partitioning of ? and ? diversity using hierarchical Bayesian modeling of species distribution and abundance, Environmental and Ecological Statistics, vol.21, p.71, 2014.

Z. Zhang, « Entropy Estimation in Turing's Perspective, Neural Computation, vol.24, p.46, 2012.
DOI : 10.1162/neco_a_00266

, « Asymptotic normality of an entropy estimator with exponentially decaying bias, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 59.1, p.46, 2013.

Z. Zhang, M. Et, and . Grabchak, « Bias adjustment for a nonparametric entropy estimator, Entropy 15, vol.6, p.46, 2013.
DOI : 10.3390/e15061999

URL : https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/6/1999/pdf

, « Nonparametric Estimation of Kullback-Leibler Divergence, Neural computation 26, vol.11, p.172, 2014.

, « Entropic Representation and Estimation of Diversity Indices, Journal of Nonparametric Statistics 28, vol.3, p.64, 2016.

Z. Zhang, H. Et, and . Huang, « Turing's formula revisited, Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, vol.14, issue.23, p.15, 2007.

Z. Zhang, J. Et, and . Zhou, « Re-parameterization of multinomial distributions and diversity indices, Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 140, vol.7, p.73, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jspi.2009.12.023

, Notions de Diversité, vol.3

. .. Composantes,

.. .. Niveaux-de-l'étude,

.. .. Le-problème-de-l'espèce, , p.11

. Calculs and . .. Données,

. .. Taux-de-couverture,

, Mesures neutres de la diversité alpha ou gamma 21

. .. Richesse-spécifique,

. Chao1 and . .. Chao2,

.. .. L'estimateur-jackknife,

L. 'estimateur-du-bootstrap and .. .. ,

. .. Calcul,

. .. Exemple,

.. .. Choix-de-l'estimateur,

. .. , Prédiction de la richesse d'un nouvel échantillon, p.33

S. .. Inférence-du-nombre-d'espèces-À-partir-de-la, , p.34

. , 34 Maximum de vraisemblance d'une distribution de Fisher, p.34

, Inférence du nombre d'espèces à partir de courbes d'accumulation, p.36

.. .. Diversité-générique,

. .. , Combien y a-t-il d'espèces différentes sur Terre ?, p.40

. .. Indice-de-simpson,

. .. Indice-de-shannon,

. .. Indice-de-hurlbert,

. Entropie and . .. Diversité,

.. .. Diversité-individuelle,

. .. Arbres-non-ultramétriques,

, Diversité de Leinster et Cobbold, vol.127

. .. Définitions,

.. .. Diversité-neutre,

. .. Diversité-non-neutre,

. Entropie-de-ricotta and . .. Szeidl,

.. .. Diversité-phylogénétique,

.. .. Diversité-individuelle,

, IV Diversité beta et décomposition 143 10 Cadre 145

. , Définition de la diversité beta par objectifs

. .. Décomposition-de-la-diversité, 149 10.3.1 Définitions de la diversité beta, mesure dérivée

, Diversité de différentiation 153

.. .. Données-de-présence-absence,

.. .. Données,

. .. Emboîtement-et-substitution,

D. and .. .. ,

. Distance-entre-paires-de-communautés and .. .. Diversité-beta-proportionnelle,

. .. Tests-de-significativité,

, Décomposition de l'entropie HCDT 169

.. .. Décomposition-de-l'indice-de-shannon,

, Table des matières

.. .. Décomposition-de-l'indice-de-gini-simpson,

.. .. Décomposition-de-l'indice-de-rao,

. .. Synthèse,

, Décomposition de la diversité phylogénétique et fonctionnelle 185

. Partitionnement-de-la-diversité-de-leinster and . .. Cobbold, , vol.187, p.191

.. .. Test-de-non-nullité,

.. .. Analyse-de-la-variabilité, , p.195

. Le-partitionnement-de-la-diversité-selon-pélissier and . .. Couteron,

. .. Diversité-de-kosman,

. V-diversité-jointe,

.. .. Récursivité-de-l'entropie,

. .. Taille-de-niche,

, Décomposition de la diversité jointe 207

. .. Définitions,

. , Relations avec d'autres mesures de diversité

. .. Variantes,